SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (2): 414-434.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.011

Previous Articles     Next Articles


TIAN Xiao-feng1,2), XIONG Wei2), WANG Fu-yun2), XU Zhao-fan2), DUAN Yong-hong2), JIA Shi-xu2)   

  1. 1)Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China;
    2)Geophysical Exploration Center, China Earthquake Administration, Zhengzhou 450003, China
  • Received:2019-10-14 Online:2020-04-20 Published:2020-07-13


田晓峰1,2),*, 熊伟2), 王夫运2), 徐朝繁2), 段永红2), 嘉世旭2)   

  1. 1)中国地震局地质研究所, 北京 100029;
    2)中国地震局地球物理勘探中心, 郑州 450003
  • 作者简介:田晓峰, 男, 1979年生, 2015年于中国科学技术大学获固体地球物理专业博士学位, 研究员, 主要从事深部探测与构造地质的相关研究, E-mail:。
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目 “主动源信号接收技术和立体观测研究”(2018YFC1503205)和国家自然科学基金(41774071)共同资助

Abstract: The urban active fault survey is of great significance to improve the development and utilization of urban underground space, the urban resilience, the regional seismic reference modeling, and the natural hazard prevention. The Beijing-Tianjin metropolitan region with the densest population is one of the most developed and most important urban groups, located at the northeastern North China plain. There are several fault systems crossing and converging in this region, and most of the faults are buried. The tectonic setting of the faults is complex from shallow to deep. There are frequent historical earthquakes in this area, which results in higher earthquake risk and geological hazards. There are two seismicity active belts in this area. One is the NE directed earthquake belt located at the east part of the profile in northern Ninghai near the Tangshan earthquake region. The other is located in the Beijing plain in the northwest of the profile and near the southern end of Yanshan fold belt, where the 1679 M8.0 Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake occurred, the largest historical earthquake of this area. Besides, there are some small earthquake activities related to the Xiadian Fault and the Cangdong Fault at the central part of the profile.
    The seismic refraction experiment is an efficient approach for urban active fault survey, especially in large- and medium-size cities. This method was widely applied to the urban hazard assessment of Los Angeles. We applied a regularized tomography method to modeling the upper crustal velocity structure from the high-resolution seismic refraction profile data which is across the Beijing-Tianjin metropolitan region. This seismic refraction profile, with 185km in length, 18 chemical explosive shots and 500m observation space, is the profile with densest seismic acquisition in the Beijing-Tianjin metropolitan region up to now. We used the trial-error method to optimize the starting velocity model for the first-arrival traveltime inversion. The multiple scale checker board tests were applied to the tomographic result assessment, which is a non-linear method to quantitatively estimate the inversion results. The resolution of the tomographic model is 2km to 4km through the ray-path coverage when the threshold value is 0.5 and is 4km to 7km through the ray-path coverage when the threshold value is 0.7. The tomographic model reveals a very thick sediment cover on the crystalline basement beneath the Beijing-Tianjin metropolitan region. The P wave velocity of near surface is 1.6km/s. The thickest sediment cover area locates in the Huanghua sag and the Wuqing sag with a thickness of 8km, and the thinnest area is located at the Beijing sag with a thickness of 2km. The thickness of the sediment cover is 4km and 5km in the Cangxian uplift and the Dacang sag, respectively. The depth of crystalline basement and the tectonic features of the geological subunits are related to the extension and rift movement since the Cenozoic, which is the dynamics of formation of the giant basins.
    It is difficult to identify a buried fault system, for a tomographic regularization process includes velocity smoothing, and limited by the seismic reflection imaging method, it is more difficult to image the steep fault. Velocity and seismic phase variations usually provide important references that describe the geometry of the faults where there are velocity differences between the two sides of fault. In this paper, we analyzed the structural features of the faults with big velocity difference between the two sides of the fault system using the velocity difference revealed by tomography and the lateral seismic variations in seismograms, and constrained the geometry of the major faults in the study region from near surface to upper crust. Both the Baodi Fault and the Xiadian Fault are very steep with clear velocity difference between their two sides. The seismic refraction phases and the tomographic model indicate that they both cut the crystalline basement and extend to 12km deep. The Baodi Fault is the boundary between the Dachang sag and the Wuqing sag. The Xiadian Fault is a listric fault and a boundary between the Tongxian uplift and the Dachang sag. The tomographic model and the earthquake locations show that the near-vertical Shunyi-Liangxiang Fault, with a certain amount of velocity difference between its two sides, cuts the crystalline basement, and the seismicity on the fault is frequent since Cenozoic. The Shunyi-Liangxiang Fault can be identified deep to 20km according to the seismicity hypocenters.
    The dense acquisition seismic refraction is a good approach to construct velocity model of the upper crust and helpful to identify the buried faults where there are velocity differences between their two sides. Our results show that the seismic refraction survey is a useful implement which provides comprehensive references for imaging the fault geometry in urban active fault survey.

Key words: Beijing-Tianjin metropolitan region, seismic refraction profile, upper crustal velocity structure, traveltime tomography, buried active fault of plain area

摘要: 在大中型城市汇集的城市群及其邻近区域, 利用高分辨地震折射探测方法开展城市活断层探测, 对于开发利用城市地下空间、 提升城市韧性、 构建城市减灾参考模型和防范地震及地质灾害具有重要的科学和现实意义。 文中运用正则化层析反演方法, 对穿越京津地区的高分辨折射地震剖面进行走时成像, 构建了控制京津地区的上地壳精细速度结构模型。 结果显示, 京津地区存在巨厚的沉积盖层, 近地表速度低至1.6km/s, 结晶基底最浅埋深位于北京凹陷(约2km), 最深位于武清凹陷(约8km), 研究区不同构造单元的结晶基底埋深与结构性质主要受新生代期间的断陷沉降作用影响。 文中还利用成像结果的速度差和地震记录的横向变化, 对速度差异较大的断裂构造特征进行了分析研究, 获得了研究区主要构造单元主控断裂的成像结果及其在上地壳的展布特征, 为活断层探测中利用地震折射成像方法判定断层形态提供了参考。

关键词: 京津城市圈, 地震折射剖面, 上地壳速度结构, 走时成像, 平原区隐伏活断层

CLC Number: