Table of Content

    20 April 2020, Volume 42 Issue 2
    ZHENG Wen-jun, WANG Qing-liang, YUAN Dao-yang, ZHANG Dong-li, ZHANG Zhu-qi, ZHANG Yi-peng
    2020, 42(2):  245-270.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.001
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    The hypothesis that strong earthquakes in China mainland are controlled by the movement and interaction of active-tectonic blocks was advanced by Chinese scientists, with the remarkable ability to encompass geological and geophysical observations. Application of the active-tectonic block concept can illustrate 6 active-tectonic block regions and 22 active-tectonic blocks in mainland China and its neighboring regions. Systems of active-tectonic block boundaries are characterized by a zone of decades or hundreds of strong earthquakes. One of the greatest strengths of the modern active-tectonic block hypothesis is its ability to explain the origin of virtually all the M8 and 80% M7 earthquakes on the main continent in eastern Asia. In other words, active-tectonic block boundary stands in strong causal interrelation with recurrence behaviors of strong earthquakes and thus, it is possible to predict an earthquake occurrence in principle. After nearly two decades of development and improvement, the active-tectonic block hypothesis has established its theoretical foundation for the active tectonics and earthquake prediction, and is promoting the transition from probabilistic prediction to physical prediction of strong earthquakes. The active-tectonic block concept was tested by application to a well-documented, high-frequent earthquake area, and was found to be an effective way of describing and interpreting the focal mechanism and seismogenic environment, but there are still many problems existing in the active-tectonic block hypothesis, which confronts with rigorous challenges. Future progress will continue to be heavily dependent on the high-precision synthetic seismogram, especially of critical poorly documented settings. It is well known that strong earthquakes occur anywhere in the interactions among the active-tectonic block boundaries where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy driving fault propagation, and then releasing the stored energy. Therefore, future studies will focus on the mechanism and forecast of the strong earthquake activity in the active-tectonic block boundary zone, with fault activity within the active-tectonic block boundary zone, quantifying current crustal strain status, upper crust and deep lithosphere coupling relation, strong earthquake-generating process and its precursory variation mechanism in seismic geophysical model as the main research contents, which are the key issues regarding deepening the theory of active-tectonic block and developing continental tectonics and dynamics in the modern earth science.
    SHAO Zhi-gang, FENG Wei, WANG Peng, YIN Xiao-fei
    2020, 42(2):  271-282.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.002
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    More than 80 percent of strong earthquakes(M≥7.0)occur in active-tectonic block boundaries in mainland China, and 95 percent of strong earthquake disasters also occur in these boundaries. In recent years, all strong earthquakes(M≥7.0)happened in active-tectonic block boundaries. For instance, 8 strong earthquakes(M≥7.0)occurred on the eastern, western, southern and northern boundaries of the Bayan Har block since 1997. In order to carry out the earthquake prediction research better, especially for the long-term earthquake prediction, the active-tectonic block boundaries have gradually become the key research objects of seismo-geology, geophysics, geodesy and other disciplines. This paper reviews the research results related to seismic activities in mainland China, as well as the main existing recognitions and problems as follows: 1)Most studies on seismic activities in active-tectonic block boundaries still remain at the statistical analysis level at present. However, the analysis of their working foundations or actual working conditions can help investigate deeply the seismic activities in the active-tectonic block boundaries; 2)Seismic strain release rates are determined by tectonic movement rates in active-tectonic block boundaries. Analysis of relations between seismic strain release rates and tectonic movement rates in mainland China shows that the tectonic movement rates in active-tectonic block boundaries of the eastern region are relatively slow, and the seismic strain release rates are with the smaller values too; the tectonic movement rates in active-tectonic block boundaries of the western region reveal higher values, and their seismic strain rates are larger than that of the eastern region. Earthquake recurrence periods of all 26 active-tectonic block boundaries are presented, and the reciprocals of recurrence periods represent high and low frequency of seismic activities. The research results point out that the tectonic movement rates and the reciprocals of recurrence periods for most faults in active-tectonic block boundaries exhibit linear relations. But due to the complexities of fault systems in active tectonic block boundaries, several faults obviously deviate from the linear relationship, and the relations between average earthquake recurrence periods and tectonic movement rates show larger uncertainties. The major reason is attributed to the differences existing in the results of the current earthquake recurrence studies. Furthermore, faults in active-tectonic boundaries exhibit complexities in many aspects, including different movement rates among various segments of the same fault and a certain active-tectonic block boundary contains some parallel faults with the same earthquake magnitude level. Consequently, complexities of these fault systems need to be further explored; 3)seismic activity processes in active-tectonic block boundaries present obvious regional characteristics. Active-tectonic block boundaries of the eastern mainland China except the western edge of Ordos block possess clustering features which indicate that due to the relatively low rate of crustal deformation in these areas, a long-time span is needed for fault stress-strain accumulation to show earthquake cluster activities. In addition, active-tectonic block boundaries in specific areas with low fault stress-strain accumulation rates also show seismic clustering properties, such as the clustering characteristics of strong seismic activities in Longmenshan fault zone, where a series of strong earthquakes have occurred successively, including the 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan, the 2013 M7.0 Lushan and the 2017 M7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquakes. The north central regions of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, regarded as the second-grade active-tectonic block boundaries, are the concentration areas of large-scale strike-slip faults in mainland China, and most of seismicity sequences show quasi-period features. Besides, most regions around the first-grade active-tectonic block boundary of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau display Poisson seismic processes. On one hand, it is still necessary to investigate the physical mechanisms and dynamics of regional structures, on the other hand, most of the active-tectonic block boundaries can be considered as fault systems. However, seismic activities involved in fault systems have the characteristic of in situ recurrence of strong earthquakes in main fault segments, the possibilities of cascading rupturing for adjacent fault segments, and space-time evolution characteristics of strong earthquakes in fault systems. 4)The dynamic environment of strong earthquakes in mainland China is characterized by “layering vertically and blocking horizontally”. With the progresses in the studies of geophysics, geochemistry, geodesy, seismology and geology, the physical models of different time/space scales have guiding significance for the interpretations of preparation and occurrence of continental strong earthquakes under the active-tectonic block frame. However, since the movement and deformation of the active-tectonic blocks contain not only the rigid motion and the horizontal differences of physical properties of crust-mantle medium are universal, there is still need for improving the understanding of the dynamic processes of continental strong earthquakes. So it is necessary to conduct in-depth studies on the physical mechanism of strong earthquake preparation process under the framework of active-tectonic block theory and establish various foundation models which are similar to seismic source physical models in California of the United States, and then provide technological scientific support for earthquake prevention and disaster mitigation. Through all kinds of studies of the physical mechanisms for space-time evolution of continental strong earthquakes, it can not only promote the transition of the study of seismic activities from statistics to physics, but also persistently push the development of active-tectonic block theory.
    HAO Ming, WANG Qing-liang
    2020, 42(2):  283-296.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.003
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    Chinese scientists proposed that large earthquakes that occurred in mainland China are controlled by the movement and deformation of active tectonic blocks. This scientific hypothesis explains zoned phenomenon of seismicity in space. The active tectonic blocks are intense active terranes formed in late Cenozoic and late Quaternary, and the tectonic activity of block boundaries is the intensest. Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS)has advantages of high spatio-temporal resolution, broad coverage, and high accuracy, and is utilized to monitor contemporary crustal deformation. High accuracy and resolution of GNSS velocity field within mainland China and vicinities provided by previous studies clearly demonstrate that different active tectonic blocks behave as different patterns of movement and deformation, and block interaction boundaries have intense tectonic deformation. The paper firstly introduces the GPS networks operated by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China(CMONOC)since 1999, and GNSS data processing methods, including GAMIT, BERNESE and GIPSY/OASIS, and discusses the advantages of using South China block as a regional reference frame for GNSS velocity field, then proposes three strategies of block division, F-test, quasi-accurate detection(QUAD), and clustering analysis. Furthermore, we introduce rigid and non-rigid block motions. Rigid block motion can be denoted by translation and rotation, while non-rigid block motion can be described by rigid motion and internal strain deformation. Internal strain deformation can be divided into uniform and linear strains. We also review the usage of F-test to distinguish whether the block acts as rigid deformation or not. In addition, combining with recent GNSS velocity results, we elaborate the characteristics of present movement of rigid block, such as the South China, Tarim, Ordos, Alashan, and Northeast China, and that of non-rigid block, such as the Tibetan plateau, Tian Shan, and North China plain. Especially, the Tibetan plateau and Tian Shan seem to deform continuously with significant internal deformation. In order to enrich and perfect the active tectonic block hypothesis, we should carefully design dense GNSS networks in inner blocks and block boundaries, optimize utilizing other space geodesy technologies such as InSAR, and strengthen combining study of geodesy, seismogeology and geophysics. Through systematic summary, this paper is very useful to employing GNSS to investigate characteristics of block movement and dynamics of large earthquakes happening in block interaction boundaries.
    YUAN Dao-yang, FENG Jian-gang, ZHENG Wen-jun, LIU Xing-wang, GE Wei-peng, WANG Wei-tong
    2020, 42(2):  297-315.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.004
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    On the basis of summarizing the circulation characteristics and mechanism of earthquakes with magnitude 7 or above in continental China, the spatial-temporal migration characteristics, mechanism and future development trend of earthquakes with magnitude above 7 in Tibetan block area are analyzed comprehensively. The results show that there are temporal clustering and spatial zoning of regional strong earthquakes and large earthquakes in continental China, and they show the characteristics of migration and circulation in time and space. In the past 100a, there are four major earthquake cluster areas that have migrated from west to east and from south to north, i.e. 1)Himalayan seismic belt and Tianshan-Baikal seismic belt; 2)Mid-north to north-south seismic belt in Tibetan block area; 3)North-south seismic belt-periphery of Assam cape; and 4)North China and Sichuan-Yunnan area. The cluster time of each area is about 20a, and a complete cycle time is about 80a. The temporal and spatial images of the migration and circulation of strong earthquakes are consistent with the motion velocity field images obtained through GPS observations in continental China. The mechanism is related to the latest tectonic activity in continental China, which is mainly affected by the continuous compression of the Indian plate to the north on the Eurasian plate, the rotation of the Tibetan plateau around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, and the additional stress field caused by the change of the earth's rotation speed.
        Since 1900AD, the Tibetan block area has experienced three periods of high tides of earthquake activity clusters(also known as earthquake series), among which the Haiyuan-Gulang earthquake series from 1920 to 1937 mainly occurred around the active block boundary structural belt on the periphery of the Tibetan block region, with the largest earthquake occurring on the large active fault zone in the northeastern boundary belt. The Chayu-Dangxiong earthquake series from 1947 to 1976 mainly occurred around the large-scale boundary active faults of Qiangtang block, Bayankala block and eastern Himalayan syntaxis within the Tibetan block area. In the 1995-present Kunlun-Wenchuan earthquake series, 8 earthquakes with MS7.0 or above have occurred on the boundary fault zones of the Bayankala block. Therefore, the Bayankala block has become the main area of large earthquake activity on the Tibetan plateau in the past 20a. The clustering characteristic of this kind of seismic activity shows that in a certain period of time, strong earthquake activity can occur on the boundary fault zone of the same block or closely related blocks driven by a unified dynamic mechanism, reflecting the overall movement characteristics of the block. The migration images of the main active areas of the three earthquake series reflect the current tectonic deformation process of the Tibetan block region, where the tectonic activity is gradually converging inward from the boundary tectonic belt around the block, and the compression uplift and extrusion to the south and east occurs in the plateau. This mechanism of gradual migration and repeated activities from the periphery to the middle can be explained by coupled block movement and continuous deformation model, which conforms to the dynamic model of the active tectonic block hypothesis.
        A comprehensive analysis shows that the Kunlun-Wenchuan earthquake series, which has lasted for more than 20a, is likely to come to an end. In the next 20a, the main active area of the major earthquakes with magnitude 7 on the continental China may migrate to the peripheral boundary zone of the Tibetan block. The focus is on the eastern boundary structural zone, i.e. the generalized north-south seismic belt. At the same time, attention should be paid to the earthquake-prone favorable regions such as the seismic empty sections of the major active faults in the northern Qaidam block boundary zone and other regions. For the northern region of the Tibetan block, the areas where the earthquakes of magnitude 7 or above are most likely to occur in the future will be the boundary structural zones of Qaidam active tectonic block, including Qilian-Haiyuan fault zone, the northern margin fault zone of western Qinling, the eastern Kunlun fault zone and the Altyn Tagh fault zone, etc., as well as the empty zones or empty fault segments with long elapse time of paleo-earthquake or no large historical earthquake rupture in their structural transformation zones. In future work, in-depth research on the seismogenic tectonic environment in the above areas should be strengthened, including fracture geometry, physical properties of media, fracture activity behavior, earthquake recurrence rule, strain accumulation degree, etc., and then targeted strengthening tracking monitoring and earthquake disaster prevention should be carried out.
    LI Zhang-jun, CHAI Xu-chao, GAN Wei-jun, HAO Ming, WANG Qing-liang, ZHUANG Wen-quan, YANG Fan
    2020, 42(2):  316-332.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.005
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    Located among the South China block, Tibetan plateau, Alxa block and Yinshan orogenic belt, the Ordos block is famous for its significant kinematic features with stable tectonics of its interior but frequent large earthquakes surrounding it. After the destruction of the North China Craton, the integrity, rotation movement and kinematic relations with its margins are hotly debated. With the accumulation of active tectonics data, and paleomagnetic and GPS observations, some kinematic models have emerged to describe rotation movement of the Ordos block since the 1970's, including clockwise rotation, anticlockwise rotation, clockwise-anticlockwise-alternate rotation, and sub-block rotation, etc. All of these models are not enough to reflect the whole movement of the Ordos block, because the data used are limited to local areas.
        In this study, based on denser geophysical observations, such as GPS and SKS splitting data, we analyzed present-day crustal and mantle deformation characteristics in the Ordos block and its surrounding areas. GPS baselines, strain rates, and strain time series are calculated to describe the intrablock deformation and kinematic relationship between Ordos block and its margins. SKS observations are used to study the kinematic relationship between crust and deeper mantle and their dynamic mechanisms, combined with the absolute plate motion(APM)and kinematic vorticity parameters. Our results show that the Ordos block behaves rigidly and rotates anticlockwise relative to the stable Eurasia plate(Euler pole: (50.942±1.935)°N, (115.692±0.303)°E, (0.195±0.006)°/Ma). The block interior sees a weak deformation of~5 nano/a and a velocity difference of smaller than 2mm/a, which can be totally covered by the uncertainties of GPS data. Therefore, the Ordos block is moving as a whole without clear differential movement under the effective range of resolution of the available GPS datasets. Its western and eastern margins are characterized by two strong right-lateral shearing belts, where 0.2°~0.4°/Ma of rotation is measured by the GPS baseline pairs. However, its northern and southern margins are weakly deformed with left-lateral shearing, where only 0.1°/Ma of rotation is measured. Kinematics in the northeastern Tibetan plateau and western margin of the Ordos block can be described with vertical coherence model with strong coupling between the crust and deeper mantle induced by the strong extrusion of the Tibetan plateau. The consistency between SKS fast wave direction and absolute plate motion suggests the existence of mantle flow along the Qinling orogenic belt, which may extend to the interior of the Ordos block. SKS fast wave directions are consistent with the direction of the asthenosphere flow in Shanxi Rift and Taihang Mountains, indicating that the crustal deformation of these areas is controlled by subduction of the Pacific plate to North China. The week anisotropy on SKS in the interior of Ordos block is from fossil anisotropy in the craton interior. After comparing with the absolute plate motion direction and deformation model, we deem that anisotropy in the interior of Ordos block comes from anisotropy of fossils frozen in the lithosphere. In conclusion, the Ordos block is rotating anticlockwise relative to its margins, which may comes from positive movement of its margins driven by lithospheric extrusion or mantle flow beneath, and its self-rotation is slight. This study can provide useful information for discussion of kinematics between the Ordos block and its surrounding tectonic units.
    CHEN Jian-long, ZHANG Dong-li, ZHOU Yu
    2020, 42(2):  333-345.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.006
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    Most great(M≥8)earthquakes during modern times have occurred in interplate regions or major continental collision zones, such as Sumatra, the Japanese island arc or the San Andreas fault zone. Continental faults slip at a much lower rate than boundary faults, but they also have the potential of generating large earthquakes. For example, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9, the slip rate of seismic fault is less than 3mm/a. They also have the potential to be significantly deadlier than those on plate boundaries because of the long repeat times and lack of preparedness. The January 23rd 1556 Huaxian earthquake in Shaanxi Province, central China, is the deadliest in history with an estimated death toll of ~830 000 from building collapse, land-sliding, famine, and disease. The earthquake occurred in the graben of the Weihe River.
        The Weihe Graben in Shaanxi Province has recorded multiple earthquakes in history, whereas most active faults within the graben have a low slip rate over geological times (~1mm/a). The slip rate of faults is an important parameter for assessing the risk of earthquakes and the interval between major earthquake recurrences. In order to obtain the quantitative information of faults slip rate, traditional geological methods or geodetic observation techniques can be used. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar(InSAR), as a modern geodetic observation technology, has the characteristics of all-weather and day-and-night imaging capability, wide spatial coverage, fine resolution, and high measurement accuracy. InSAR offers the potential to measure interseismic slip rates on faults at a resolution of millimetres per year. In this study, we use InSAR data to analyze the present deformation of the Kouzhen-Guanshan, Weihe and North Qinling faults in the central part of the graben.
        We collected 32 European Space Agency(ESA's)Envisat ASAR images from descending track 161 between 2003 and 2010, and processed them using ROI_PAC. The precise orbit determination from the Delft Institute for Earth Oriented Space Research(DEOS)was applied to correct for orbital effects. The topographic contribution was simulated and removed using the 90m resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission(SRTM)Digital Elevation Model(DEM)from CGIAR-SCI. Each interferogram was downsampled to 64 looks in the range direction (1 280m). Before phase unwrapping, a weighted power spectrum filter was applied to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The branch-cut method was used for phase unwrapping. Phase unwrapping errors were checked by summing around a closed loop. All the major unwrapping errors were identified and corrected manually. We obtained a total of 98 interferograms with a spatial baseline of smaller than 300m, and selected 33 interferograms whose coherence is well preserved for time-series analysis. The time-series analysis was implemented using the π-RATE software package. It uses the geocoded interferograms from ROI_PAC to create a minimum spanning tree(MST)network, from which the orbital and topographically-correlated atmospheric errors are estimated. The MST network connects all epochs with the most coherent interferograms,including no closed loops of interferograms. The network approach is able to improve the estimation of orbital error by ~9% compared to the independent interferograms approach. The orbital errors are empirically modelled as planar or quadratic ramps. The topographically-correlated atmospheric correction was applied to each interferogram after having corrected for the orbital errors. Following creating a minimum spanning tree network, correcting for orbital and topographically-correlated atmospheric errors, and calculating the covariance matrix, we obtained the 7-year average slip rate of the faults that we are focused on.
        Our results show that the faults across the Weihe graben all have a small slip rate of less than 2mm/a. The Kouzhen-Guanshan Fault does not show any evident deformation signal. The Weihe Fault seems to show 1mm/a normal faulting in the satellite line-of-sight direction. In addition, we find ~10mm/a surface subsidence of the Xi'an City between 2003 and 2010. We use the stable Ordos block as a reference to assess the accuracy of our InSAR time-series analysis. Assuming the Ordos block has no internal deformation, we calculated the error of the InSAR rate map to be (-0.1±1)mm/a, indicating that our result is reliable. This paper presents a preliminary result of the present deformation of the Weihe Graben. InSAR is a powerful technique for monitoring active faults on a timescale of tens of years, and can be used for seismic hazard assessment in the future.
    ZHAN Hui-li, ZHANG Dong-li, HE Xiao-hui, SHEN Xu-zhang, ZHENG Wen-jun, LI Zhi-gang
    2020, 42(2):  346-365.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.007
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    Due to the interaction between the Tibetan plateau, the Alxa block and the Ordos block, the western margin of Ordos(33.5°~39°N, 104°~108°E)has complex tectonic features and deformation patterns with strong tectonic activities and active faults. Active faults with different strikes and characteristics have been developed, including the Haiyuan Fault, the Xiangshan-Tianjingshan Fault, the Liupanshan Fault, the Yunwushan Fault, the Yantongshan Fault, the eastern Luoshan Fault, the Sanguankou-Niushoushan Fault, the Yellow River Fault, the west Qinling Fault, and the Xiaoguanshan Fault.
        In this study, 7 845 earthquakes(M≥1.0)from January 1st, 1990 to June 30th, 2018 were relocated using the double-difference location algorithm, and finally, we got valid locations for 4 417 earthquakes. Meanwhile, we determined focal mechanism solutions for 54 earthquakes(M≥3.5)from February 28th, 2009 to September 2nd, 2017 by the Cut and Paste(CAP)method and collected 15 focal mechanism solutions from previous studies. The spatial distribution law of the earthquake, the main active fault geometry and the regional tectonic stress field characteristics are studied comprehensively.
        We found that the earthquakes are more spatially concentrated after the relocation, and the epicenters of larger earthquakes(M≥3.5) are located at the edge of main active faults. The average hypocenter depth is about 8km and the seismogenic layer ranges from 0 to 20km. The spatial distributions and geometry structures of the faults and the regional deformation feature are clearly mapped with the relocated earthquakes and vertical profiles. The complex focal mechanism solutions indicate that the arc-shaped tectonic belt consisting of Haiyuan Fault, Xiangshan-Tianjingshan Fault and Yantongshan Fault is dominated by compression and torsion; the Yellow River Fault is mainly by stretching; the west Qinling Fault is characterized by shear and compression. The structural properties of the fault structure are dominated by strike-slip and thrust, with a larger strike-slip component. The near-north-south Yellow River Fault is characterized by high angle NW dipping and normal fault motion.
        Based on small earthquake relocation and focal mechanism solution results, and in combination with published active structures and geophysical data in the study area, it is confirmed that the western margin of Ordos is affected by the three blocks of the Tibetan plateau, the Alax and the Ordos, presenting different tectonic deformation modes, and there are also obvious differences in motion among the secondary blocks between the active faults. The area south of the Xiangshan-Tianjingshan Fault has moved southeastward since the early Quaternary; the Yinchuan Basin and the block in the eastern margin of the Yellow River Fault move toward the SE direction.
    TANG Qing, ZHENG Wen-jun, SHI Lin, ZHANG Dong-li, HUANG Rong
    2020, 42(2):  366-381.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.008
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    High-precision and high-resolution topography are the basis of quantitative study of active tectonics. Traditional methods are mainly interpreted from the remote sensing image and can only obtain two-dimensional, medium-resolution DEM(5~10m grid unit)or local three-dimensional surface deformation characteristics. A combination of offset and micro-relief information is essential for understanding the long-term rupture pattern of faults, such as in seismic hazard evaluation. The recently developed high-resolution light detection and ranging(LiDAR)technology can directly carry out high-precision and omni-directional three-dimensional measurement of the landform, and provide fine geomorphologic data for the study of active tectonics, which is helpful to deepen the understanding of surface rupture process and fault activity characteristics. In this study, we take part of the Xiaohongshan Fault, the western segment of Xiangshan-Tianjingshan Fault located in Gansu Province(NE Tibet), as an example of how LiDAR data may be used to improve the study of active faults. Using the airborne LiDAR technology, we obtain the three-dimensional surface deformation characteristics with high accuracy and establish the three-dimensional topographic model of the fault geomorphic. A high-resolution digital elevation model(DEM)of the Jingtai-Xiaohongshan Fault was extracted based on high-precision LiDAR data. Then the faulted geomorphic markers(gullies, ridges and terraces)were measured in detail along the fault, and different offset clusters and long-term sliding vector of different segments of the fault were finally acquired. We obtained the 82 horizontal displacements and 62 vertical displacements of geomorphic markers. According to the offset amounts, we observed peaks in the histogram by using the method of cumulative offset probability density and interpreted that each peak may represent an earthquake that ruptured the Xiaohongshan Fault. The results show that the horizontal and vertical displacements fall into five clusters, and the smallest cluster may indicate the coseismic slip of the most recent earthquake, while the other clusters may represent the slip accumulation of multiple preceding earthquakes. The sliding vectors constrained by the horizontal and vertical displacement of several typical geomorphic markers show obvious differences on different segments of the fault. The results show that the fault segment is divided into three segments from west to east, which indicates that the fault activity is not uniform along the fault.
    WANG Yi-zhou, ZHENG De-wen, ZHANG Hui-ping, LI Chao-peng, HAO Yu-qi, ZHANG Rui
    2020, 42(2):  382-398.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.009
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    The Huashan piedmont fault, forming a part of the southern margin of the Weihe graben, is one of the important normal faults that control the subsidence of the intracontinental rift. Developing on the footwall of the fault, the Huashan block has experienced rapid cooling during the Cenozoic, especially since the early-middle Miocene. Mountain exhumation causes and transports a great amount of sediments to the adjacent hanging wall, setting a typical case of mountain-basin coupling system. Studies on active tectonics, historical and paleo earthquakes and field investigations reveal that the middle section(Huaxian-Huayin)of the fault is much more active than the west(Lantian-Huaxian)and east(Huayin-Lingbao)sections.
        We extracted channel profiles of rivers that originate from the main water divide of the northern flank of the Huashan Mountain. Based on the method of slope-area analysis and the integral approach, we identified knickpoints, calculated channel concavity and steepness indices, and constructed paleo river profiles. Of most rivers, the concavities are within a relatively narrow range of 0.3~0.6, with no obvious correlation with tectonics. However, channel steepness and knickpoint distribution vary spatially. In the east section, rivers are under steady-state with smooth, concave-up channels and lower steepness((104±30)m0.9). In the other two sections, rivers are mainly under transient state with slope-break knickpoints. For the channel segments below knickpoints, steepness indices are much higher in the middle section((230±92)m0.9)than in the west((152±53)m0.9). Thus, the variance of fault activity can be reflected by channel steepness pattern. Above the knickpoints, channel steepness indices are much lower(middle(103±23)m0.9, west(60±14)m0.9). What's more, we found a statistically significant power-law scaling between knickpoint retreat distance and catchment drainage area. Thus, we attributed these knickpoints to be the results of recent rapid uplift of the Huashan block. The relief of paleo channels(middle(1000±153)m, west(751±170)m)accounts for~60%~80% of the relief of modern rivers(middle(1323±249)m, west(1057±231)m), which means that ~20%~40% of modern channel relief was caused by the episode of the rapid uplift. Assuming a balance between the rates of rock uplift and downstream river incision, a power-law function between uplift rates and channel steepness can be derived. According to the fault throw rates of the middle section 1.5~3mm/a(since late Pleistocene), we constrained slope exponent n~0.5 and channel erodibility K~1.5×10-4m0.55/a. Combining the knickpoint age formula, we estimated that the rapid mountain uplift/fault throw began at ~(0.55±0.25)Ma BP. Therefore, the middle of the Huashan piedmont fault is more active than the west and east sections. The fast fault throw of the west and middle sections since the middle Pleistocene has caused rapid mountain uplift and high topographic relief.
    LUO Quan-xing, LI Chuan-you, REN Guang-xue, LI Xin-nan, MA Zi-fa, DONG Jin-yuan
    2020, 42(2):  399-413.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.010
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    The Shanxi Graben System is one of the intracontinental graben systems developed around the Ordos Block in North China since the Cenozoic, and it provides a unique natural laboratory for studying the long-term tectonic history of active intracontinental normal faults in an extensional environment. Comparing with the dense strong earthquakes in its central part, no strong earthquakes with magnitudes over 7 have been recorded historically in the Jin-Ji-Meng Basin-and-Range Province of the northern Shanxi Graben System. However, this area is located at the conjunction area of several active-tectonic blocks(e.g. the Ordos, Yan Shan and North China Plain blocks), thus it has the tectonic conditions for strong earthquakes. Studying the active tectonics in the northern Shanxi Graben System will thus be of great significance to the seismic hazard assessment. Based on high-resolution remote sensing image interpretations and field investigations, combined with the UAV photogrammetry and OSL dating, we studied the late Quaternary activity and slip rate of the relatively poorly-researched Yanggao-Tianzhen Fault(YTF)in the Jin-Ji-Meng Basin-and-Range Province and got the followings: 1)The YTF extends for more than 75km from Dashagou, Fengzhen, Inner Mongolia in the west to Yiqingpo, Tianzhen, Shanxi Province in the east. In most cases, the YTF lies in the contact zone between the bedrock mountain and the sediments in the basin, but the fault grows into the basin where the fault geometry is irregular. At the vicinity of the Erdun Village, Shijiudun Village, and Yulinkou Village, the faults are not only distributed at the basin-mountain boundary, we have also found evidence of late Quaternary fault activity in the alluvial fans that is far away from the basin-mountain boundary. The overall strike of the fault is N78°E, but the strike gradually changes from ENE to NE, then to NWW from the west to the east, with dips ranging from 30° to 80°. 2)Based on field surveys of tectonic landforms and analysis of fault kinematics in outcrops, we have found that the sense of motion of the YTF changes along its strikes: the NEE and NE-striking segments are mainly normal dip-slip faults, while the left-laterally displaced gullies on the NWW segment and the occurrence characteristics of striations in the fault outcrop indicate that the NWW-striking segment is normal fault with minor sinistral strike-slip component. The sense of motion of the YTF determined by geologic and geomorphic evidences is consistent with the relationship between the regional NNW-SSE extension regime and the fault geometry. 3)By measuring and dating the displaced geologic markers and geomorphic surfaces, such as terraces and alluvial fans at three sites along the western segment of the YTF, we estimated that the fault slip rates are 0.12~0.20mm/a over the late Pleistocene. In order to compare the slip rate determined by geological method with extension rate constrained by geodetic measurement, the vertical slip rates were converted into horizontal slip rate using the dip angles of the fault planes measured in the field. At Zhuanlou Village, the T2 terrace was vertically displaced for(2.5±0.4)m, the abandonment age of the T2 was constrained to be(12.5±1.6)ka, so we determined a vertical slip rate of(0.2±0.04)mm/a using the deformed T2 terrace and its OSL age. For a 50°dipping fault, it corresponds to extension rate of(0.17±0.03)mm/a. At Pingshan Village, the vertical displacement of the late Pleistocene alluvial fan is measured to be(5.38±0.83)m, the abandonment age of the alluvial fan is(29.7±2.5)ka, thus we estimated the vertical slip rate of the YTF to(0.18±0.02)mm/a. For a 65° dipping fault, it corresponds to an extension rate of(0.09±0.01)mm/a. Ultimately, the corresponding extensional rates were determined to be between 0.09mm/a and 0.17mm/a. Geological and geodetic researches have shown that the northern Shanxi Graben System are extending in NNW-SSE direction with slip rates of 1~2mm/a. Our data suggests that the YTF accounts for about 10% of the crustal extension rate in the northern Shanxi Graben System.
    TIAN Xiao-feng, XIONG Wei, WANG Fu-yun, XU Zhao-fan, DUAN Yong-hong, JIA Shi-xu
    2020, 42(2):  414-434.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.011
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    The urban active fault survey is of great significance to improve the development and utilization of urban underground space, the urban resilience, the regional seismic reference modeling, and the natural hazard prevention. The Beijing-Tianjin metropolitan region with the densest population is one of the most developed and most important urban groups, located at the northeastern North China plain. There are several fault systems crossing and converging in this region, and most of the faults are buried. The tectonic setting of the faults is complex from shallow to deep. There are frequent historical earthquakes in this area, which results in higher earthquake risk and geological hazards. There are two seismicity active belts in this area. One is the NE directed earthquake belt located at the east part of the profile in northern Ninghai near the Tangshan earthquake region. The other is located in the Beijing plain in the northwest of the profile and near the southern end of Yanshan fold belt, where the 1679 M8.0 Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake occurred, the largest historical earthquake of this area. Besides, there are some small earthquake activities related to the Xiadian Fault and the Cangdong Fault at the central part of the profile.
        The seismic refraction experiment is an efficient approach for urban active fault survey, especially in large- and medium-size cities. This method was widely applied to the urban hazard assessment of Los Angeles. We applied a regularized tomography method to modeling the upper crustal velocity structure from the high-resolution seismic refraction profile data which is across the Beijing-Tianjin metropolitan region. This seismic refraction profile, with 185km in length, 18 chemical explosive shots and 500m observation space, is the profile with densest seismic acquisition in the Beijing-Tianjin metropolitan region up to now. We used the trial-error method to optimize the starting velocity model for the first-arrival traveltime inversion. The multiple scale checker board tests were applied to the tomographic result assessment, which is a non-linear method to quantitatively estimate the inversion results. The resolution of the tomographic model is 2km to 4km through the ray-path coverage when the threshold value is 0.5 and is 4km to 7km through the ray-path coverage when the threshold value is 0.7. The tomographic model reveals a very thick sediment cover on the crystalline basement beneath the Beijing-Tianjin metropolitan region. The P wave velocity of near surface is 1.6km/s. The thickest sediment cover area locates in the Huanghua sag and the Wuqing sag with a thickness of 8km, and the thinnest area is located at the Beijing sag with a thickness of 2km. The thickness of the sediment cover is 4km and 5km in the Cangxian uplift and the Dacang sag, respectively. The depth of crystalline basement and the tectonic features of the geological subunits are related to the extension and rift movement since the Cenozoic, which is the dynamics of formation of the giant basins.
        It is difficult to identify a buried fault system, for a tomographic regularization process includes velocity smoothing, and limited by the seismic reflection imaging method, it is more difficult to image the steep fault. Velocity and seismic phase variations usually provide important references that describe the geometry of the faults where there are velocity differences between the two sides of fault. In this paper, we analyzed the structural features of the faults with big velocity difference between the two sides of the fault system using the velocity difference revealed by tomography and the lateral seismic variations in seismograms, and constrained the geometry of the major faults in the study region from near surface to upper crust. Both the Baodi Fault and the Xiadian Fault are very steep with clear velocity difference between their two sides. The seismic refraction phases and the tomographic model indicate that they both cut the crystalline basement and extend to 12km deep. The Baodi Fault is the boundary between the Dachang sag and the Wuqing sag. The Xiadian Fault is a listric fault and a boundary between the Tongxian uplift and the Dachang sag. The tomographic model and the earthquake locations show that the near-vertical Shunyi-Liangxiang Fault, with a certain amount of velocity difference between its two sides, cuts the crystalline basement, and the seismicity on the fault is frequent since Cenozoic. The Shunyi-Liangxiang Fault can be identified deep to 20km according to the seismicity hypocenters.
        The dense acquisition seismic refraction is a good approach to construct velocity model of the upper crust and helpful to identify the buried faults where there are velocity differences between their two sides. Our results show that the seismic refraction survey is a useful implement which provides comprehensive references for imaging the fault geometry in urban active fault survey.
    SHAO Yan-xiu, YUAN Dao-yang, LIU-ZENG Jing, Jerome Van der Woerd, LI Zhi-gang, WU Lei, LIU Fang-bin
    2020, 42(2):  435-454.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.012
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    In this study, we described a 14km-long paleoearthquakes surface rupture across the salt flats of western Qaidam Basin, 10km south of the Xorkol segment of the central Altyn Tagh Fault, with satellite images interpretation and field investigation methods. The surface rupture strikes on average about N80°E sub-parallel to the main Altyn Tagh Fault, but is composed of several stepping segments with markedly different strike ranging from 68°N~87°E. The surface rupture is marked by pressure ridges, sub-fault strands, tension-gashes, pull-apart and faulted basins, likely caused by left-lateral strike-slip faulting. More than 30 pressure ridges can be distinguished with various rectangular, elliptical or elongated shapes. Most long axis of the ridges are oblique(90°N~140°E)to, but a few are nearly parallel to the surface rupture strike. The ridge sizes vary also, with heights from 1 to 15m, widths from several to 60m, and lengths from 10 to 100m. The overall size of these pressure ridges is similar to those found along the Altyn Tagh Fault, for instance, south of Pingding Shan or across Xorkol. Right-stepping 0.5~1m-deep gashes or sub-faults, with lengths from a few meters to several hundred meters, are distributed obliquely between ridges at an angle reaching 30°. The sub-faults are characterized with SE or NW facing 0.5~1m-high scarps. Several pull-apart and faulted basins are bounded by faults along the eastern part of the surface rupture. One large pull-apart basins are 6~7m deep and 400m wide. A faulted basin, 80m wide, 500m long and 3m deep, is bounded by 2 left-stepping left-lateral faults and 4 right-stepping normal faults. Two to three m-wide gashes are often seen on pressure ridges, and some ridges are left-laterally faulted and cut into several parts, probably owing to the occurrence of repetitive earthquakes. The OSL dating indicates that the most recent rupture might occur during Holocene.
        Southwestwards the rupture trace disappears a few hundred meters north of a south dipping thrust scarp bounding uplifted and folded Plio-Quaternary sediments to the south. Thrust scarps can be followed southwestward for another 12km and suggest a connection with the south Pingding Shan Fault, a left-lateral splay of the main Altyn Tagh Fault. To the northeast the rupture trace progressively veers to the east and is seen cross-cutting the bajada south of Datonggou Nanshan and merging with active thrusts clearly outlined by south facing cumulative scarps across the fans. The geometry of this strike-slip fault trace and the clear young seismic geomorphology typifies the present and tectonically active link between left-lateral strike-slip faulting and thrusting along the eastern termination of the Altyn Tagh Fault, a process responsible for the growth of the Tibetan plateau at its northeastern margin. The discrete relation between thrusting and strike-slip faulting suggests discontinuous transfer of strain from strike-slip faulting to thrusting and thus stepwise northeastward slip-rate decrease along the Altyn Tagh Fault after each strike-slip/thrust junction.
    ZHANG Bo, HE Wen-gui, LIU Bing-xu, GAO Xiao-dong, PANG Wei, WANG Ai-guo, YUAN Dao-yang
    2020, 42(2):  455-471.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.013
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    The Ebomiao Fault is a newly discovered active fault near the block boundary between the Tibetan plateau and the Alashan Block. This fault locates in the southern margin of the Beishan Mountain, which is generally considered to be a tectonically inactive zone, and active fault and earthquake are never expected to emerge, so the discovery of this active fault challenges the traditional thoughts. As a result, studying the new activity of this fault would shed new light on the neotectonic evolution of the Beishan Mountain and tectonic interaction effects between the Tibetan plateau and the Alashan Block. Based on some mature and traditional research methods of active tectonics such as satellite image interpretation, trenches excavation, differential GPS measurement, Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle Photogrammetry(UAVP), and Optical Stimulated Luminescence(OSL)dating, we quantitatively study the new activity features of the Ebomiao Fault.
        Through this study, we complete the fault geometry of the Ebomiao Fault and extend the fault eastward by 25km on the basis of the 20km-fault trace identified previously, the total length of the fault is extened to 45km, which is capable of generating magnitude 7 earthquake calculated from the empirical relationships between earthquake magnitude and fault length. The Ebomiao Fault is manifested as several segments of linear scarps on the land surface, the scarps are characterized by poor continuity because of seasonal flood erosion. Linear scarps are either north- or south-facing scarps that emerge intermittently. Fourteen differential GPS profiles show that the height of the north-facing scarps ranges from (0.22±0.02)m to (1.32±0.1)m, and seven differential GPS profiles show the height of south-facing scarps ranging from (0.33±0.1)m to (0.64±0.1)m. To clarify the causes of the linear scarps with opposite-facing directions, we dug seven trenches across these scarps, the trench profiles show that the south-dipping reverse faults dominate the north-facing scarps, the dipping angles range from 23° to 86°. However, the south-facing scarps are controlled by south-dipping normal faults with dipping angles spanning from 60° to 81°.
        The Ebomiao Fault is dominated by left-lateral strike-slip activity, with a small amount of vertical-slip component. From the submeter-resolution digital elevation models(DEM)constructed by UAVP, the measured left-lateral displacement of 19 gullies in the western segment of the Ebomiao Fault are(3.8±0.5)~(105±25)m, while the height of the north-facing scarps on this segment are(0.22±0.02)~(1.32±0.10)m(L3-L7), the left-lateral displacement is much larger than the scarp height. In this segment, there are three gullies preserving typical left-lateral offsets, one gully among them preserves two levels of alluvial terraces, the terrace riser between the upper terrace and the lower terrace is clear and shows horizontal offset. Based on high-resolution DEM interpretation and displacement restoration by LaDiCaoz software, the left-lateral displacement of the terrace riser is measured to be(16.7±0.5)m. The formation time of the terrace riser is approximated by the OSL age of the upper terrace, which is (11.2±1.5)ka BP at (0.68±0.03)m beneath the surface, and(11.4±0.6)ka at (0.89±0.03)m beneath the surface, the OSL age (11.2±1.5)ka BP at (0.68±0.03)m beneath the surface is more close to the formation time of the upper terrace because of a nearer distance to sediment contact between alluvial fan and eolian sand silt. Taking the (16.7±0.5)m left-lateral displacement of the terrace riser and the upper terrace age (11.2±1.5)ka, we calculate a left-lateral strike-slip rate of(1.52±0.25)mm/a for the Ebomiao Fault. The main source for the slip rate error is that the terrace risers on both walls of the fault are not definitely corresponded. The north wall of the fault is covered by eolian sand, we can only presume the location of terrace riser by geomorphic analysis. In addition, the samples used to calculate slip rate before were collected from the aeolian sand deposits on the north side of the fault, they are not sediments of the fan terraces, so they could not accurately define the formation age of the upper terrace. This study dates the upper terrace directly on the south wall of the fault.
        Since the late Cenozoic, the new activity of the Ebomiao Fault may have responded to the shear component of the relative movement between the Tibetan plateau and the Alashan Block under the macroscopic geological background of the northeastern-expanding of the Tibetan plateau. The north-facing fault scarps are dominated by south-dipping low-angle reverse faults, the emergence of this kind of faults(faults overthrusting from the Jinta Basin to the Beishan Mountain)suggests the far-field effect of block convergence between Tibetan plateau and Alashan Block, which results in the relative compression and crustal shortening. As for whether the Ebomiao Fault and Qilianshan thrust system are connected in the deep, more work is needed.
    LI Jia-yu, ZHENG Wen-jun, WANG Wei-tao, WAN Ying, ZHANG Pei-zhen, WANG Yang
    2020, 42(2):  472-491.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.014
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    Longshou Shan, located at the southern edge of the Alxa block, is one of the outermost peripheral mountains and the northeasternmost area of the northeastern Tibetan plateau. In recent years, through geochronology, thermochronology, magnetic stratigraphy and other methods, a large number of studies have been carried out on the initiation time of major faults, the exhumation history of mountains and the formation and evolution of basins in the northeastern Tibet Plateau, the question of whether and when the northeastward expansion of the northeastern Tibet Plateau has affected the southern part of the Alxa block has been raised. Therefore, the exhumation history of Longshou Shan provides significant insight on the uplift and expansion of the Tibetan plateau and their dynamic mechanism. The Longshou Shan, trending NWW, is the largest mountain range in the Hexi Corridor Basin, and its highest peak is more than 3 600m(with average elevation of 2800m), where the average elevation of Hexi Corridor is 1 600m, the relative height difference between them is nearly 2200m. This mountain is bounded by two parallel thrust faults: The North Longshou Shan Fault(NLSF)and the South Longshou Shan Fault(SLSF), both of them trends NWW and has high angle of inclination(45°~70°)but dips opposite to each other. The South Longshou Shan Fault, located in the northern margin of the Hexi Corridor Basin, is the most active fault on the northeastern plateau, and controls the uplift of Longshou Shan.Due to its lower closure temperature, the lower-temperature thermochronology method can more accurately constrain the cooling process of a geological body in the upper crust. In recent years, the low-temperature thermochronology method has been used more and more in the study of the erosion of orogenic belts, the evolution of sedimentary basins and tectonic geomorphology. In this study, the apatite (U-Th)/He(AHe) method is used to analyze the erosion and uplift of rocks on the south and north sides of Longshou Shan. 11 AHe samples collected from the south slope exhibit variable AHe ages between~8Ma and~200Ma, the age-elevation plot shows that before 13~17Ma, the erosion rate of the Longshou Shan is very low, and then rapid erosion occurs in the mountain range, which indicates that the strong uplift of Longshou Shan occurred at 13~17Ma BP, resulting in rapid cooling of the southern rocks. In contrast, 3 AHe ages obtained from the north slope are older and more concentrated ranging from 220Ma BP to 240Ma BP, indicating that the north slope can be seen as a paleo-isothermal surface and the activity of the north side is weak. The results of thermal history inverse modeling show that the South Longshou Shan Fault was in a tectonic quiet period until the cooling rate suddenly increased to 3.33℃/Ma at 14Ma BP, indicating that Longshou Shan had not experienced large tectonic events before~14Ma BP.
        We believe that under the control of South Longshou Shan Fault, the mountain is characterized by a northward tilting uplift at Mid-Miocene. Our results on the initial deformation of the Longshou Shan, in combination with many published studies across the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, suggest that the compression strain of the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau may expand from south to north, and the Tibetan plateau has expanded northeastward to the southern margin of the Alxa block as early as Mid-Miocene, making Longshou Shan the current structural and geomorphic boundary of the northeastern plateau.
    WU Wei-wei, WEI Ya-ling, LONG Feng, LIANG Ming-jian, CHEN Xue-fen, SUN Wei, ZHAO Jing
    2020, 42(2):  492-512.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.015
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    On August 8, 2017, a strong earthquake of M7.0 occurred in Jiuzhaigou County, Aba Prefecture, northern Sichuan. The earthquake occurred on a branch fault at the southern end of the eastern section of the East Kunlun fault zone. In the northwest of the aftershock area is the Maqu-Maqin seismic gap, which is in a locking state under high stress. Destructive earthquakes are frequent along the southeast direction of the aftershocks area. In Songpan-Pingwu area, only 50~80km away from the Jiuzhaigou earthquake, two M7.2 earthquakes and one M6.7 earthquake occurred from August 16 to 23, 1976. Therefore, the Jiuzhaigou earthquake was an earthquake that occurred at the transition part between the historical earthquake fracture gap and the neotectonic active area. Compared with other M7.0 earthquakes, there are few moderate-strong aftershocks following this Jiuzhaigou earthquake, and the maximum magnitude of aftershocks is much smaller than the main shock. There is no surface rupture zone discovered corresponding to the M7.0 earthquake. In order to understand the feature of source structure and the tectonic environment of the source region, we calculate the parameters of the initial earthquake catalogue by Loc3D based on the digital waveform data recorded by Sichuan seismic network and seismic phase data collected by the China Earthquake Networks Center. Smaller events in the sequence are relocated using double-difference algorithm; source mechanism solutions and centroid depths of 29 earthquakes with ML≥3.4 are obtained by CAP method. Moreover, the source spectrum of 186 earthquakes with 2.0≤ML≤5.5 is restored and the spatial distribution of source stress drop along faults is obtained. According to the relocations and focal mechanism results, the Jiuzhaigou M7.0 earthquake is a high-angle left-lateral strike-slip event. The earthquake sequence mainly extends along the NW-SE direction, with the dominant focal depth of 4~18km. There are few shallow earthquakes and few earthquakes with depth greater than 20km. The relocation results show that the distribution of aftershocks is bounded by the M7.0 main shock, which shows obvious segmental characteristics in space, and the aftershock area is divided into NW segment and SE segment. The NW segment is about 16km long and 12km wide, with scattered and less earthquakes, the dominant focal depth is 4~12km, the source stress drop is large, and the type of focal mechanism is complicated. The SE segment is about 20km long and 8km wide, with concentrated earthquakes, the dominant depth is 4~12km, most moderate-strong earthquakes occurred in the depth between 11~14km. Aftershock activity extends eastward from the start point of the M7.0 main earthquake. The middle-late-stage aftershocks are released intensively on this segment, most of them are strike-slip earthquakes. The stress drop of the aftershock sequence gradually decreases with time. Principal stress axis distribution also shows segmentation characteristics. On the NW segment, the dominant azimuth of P axis is about 91.39°, the average elevation angle is about 20.80°, the dominant azimuth of T axis is NE-SW, and the average elevation angle is about 58.44°. On the SE segment, the dominant azimuth of P axis is about 103.66°, the average elevation angle is about 19.03°, the dominant azimuth of T axis is NNE-SSW, and the average elevation angle is about 15.44°. According to the fault profile inferred from the focal mechanism solution, the main controlling structure in the source area is in NW-SE direction, which may be a concealed fault or the north extension of Huya Fault. The northwest end of the fault is limited to the horsetail structure at the east end of the East Kunlun Fault, and the SE extension requires clear seismic geological evidence. The dip angle of the NW segment of the seismogenic fault is about 65°, which may be a reverse fault striking NNW and dipping NE. According to the basic characteristics of inverse fault ruptures, the rupture often extends short along the strike, the rupture length is often disproportionate to the magnitude of the earthquake, and it is not easy to form a rupture zone on the surface. The dip angle of the SE segment of the seismogenic fault is about 82°, which may be a strike-slip fault that strikes NW and dips SW. The fault plane solution shows significant change on the north and south sides of the main earthquake, and turns gradually from compressional thrust to strike-slip movement, with a certain degree of rotation.
    LIANG Ming-jian, CHEN Li-chun, RAN Yong-kang, LI Yan-bao, WANG Dong, GAO Shuai-po, HAN Ming-ming, ZENG Di
    2020, 42(2):  513-525.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.016
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    Complex geometrical structures on strike-slip faults would likely affect fault behavior such as strain accumulation and distribution, seismic rupture process, etc. The Xianshuihe Fault has been considered to be a Holocene active strike-slip fault with a high horizontal slip rate along the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. During the past 300 years, the Xianshuihe Fault produced 8 earthquakes with magnitude≥7 along the whole fault and showed strong activities of large earthquakes. Taking the Huiyuansi Basin as a structure boundary, the northwestern and southeastern segments of the Xianshuihe Fault show different characteristics. The northwestern segment, consisting of the Luhuo, Daofu and Qianning sections, shows a left-stepping en echelon pattern by simple fault strands. However, the southeastern segment(Huiyuansi-Kangding segment)has a complex structure and is divided into three sub-faults: the Yalahe, Selaha and Zheduotang Faults. To the south of Kangding County, the Moxi segment of the Xianshuihe Fault shows a simple structure. The previous studies suggest that the three sub-faults(the Yalahe, Selaha and Zheduotang Faults of the Huiyuansi-Kangding segment)unevenly distribute the strain of the northwestern segment of the Xianshuihe Fault. However, the disagreement of the new activity of the Yalahe Fault limits the understanding of the strain distribution model of the Huiyuansi-Kangding segment. Most scholars believed that the Yalahe Fault is a Holocene active fault. However, Zhang et al.(2017)used low-temperature thermochronology to study the cooling history of the Gongga rock mass, and suggested that the Yalahe Fault is now inactive and the latest activity of the Xianshuihe Fault has moved westward over the Selaha Fault. The Yalahe Fault is the only segment of the Xianshuihe Fault that lacks records of the strong historical earthquakes. Moreover, the Yalahe Fault is located in the alpine valley area, and the previous traffic conditions were very bad. Thus, the previous research on fault activity of the fault relied mainly on the interpretation of remote sensing, and the uncertainty was relatively large. Through remote sensing and field investigation, we found the geological and geomorphological evidence for Holocene activity of the Yalahe Fault. Moreover, we found a well-preserved seismic surface rupture zone with a length of about 10km near the Yariacuo and the co-seismic offsets of the earthquake are about 2.5~3.5m. In addition, we also advance the new active fault track of the Yalahe Fault to Yala Town near Kangding County. In Wangmu and Yala Town, we found the geological evidence for the latest fault activity that the Holocene alluvial fans were dislocated by the fault. These evidences suggest that the Yalahe Fault is a Holocene active fault, and has the seismogenic tectonic condition to produce a large earthquake, just like the Selaha and Zheduotang Faults. These also provide seismic geological evidence for the strain distribution model of the Kangding-Huiyuansi segment of the Xianshuihe Fault.
    LI Yu-jiang, SHI Fu-qiang, ZHANG Hui, WEI Wen-xin, XU Jing, SHAO Zhi-gang
    2020, 42(2):  526-546.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.017
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    Coulomb stress change on active faults is critical for seismic hazard analysis and has been widely used at home and abroad. The Sichuan-Yunnan region is one of the most tectonically and seismically active regions in Mainland China, considering some highly-populated cities and the historical earthquake records in this region, stress evolution and seismic hazard on these active faults capture much attention.
        From the physical principal, the occurrence of earthquakes will not only cause stress drop and strain energy release on the seismogenic faults, but also transfer stress to the surrounding faults, hence alter the shear and normal stress on the surrounding faults that may delay, hasten or even trigger subsequent earthquakes. Previously, most studies focus on the coseismic Coulomb stress change according to the elastic dislocation model. However, the gradually plentiful observation data attest to the importance of postseismic viscoelastic relaxation effect during the analysis of seismic interactions, stress evolution along faults and the cumulative effect on the longer time scale of the surrounding fault zone. In this paper, in order to assess the seismic hazard in Sichuan-Yunnan region, based on the elastic dislocation theory and the stratified viscoelastic model, we employ the PSGRN/PSCMP program to calculate the cumulative Coulomb stress change on the main boundary faults and in inner blocks in this region, by combining the influence of coseismic dislocations of the M≥7.0 historical strong earthquakes since the Yongsheng M7.8 earthquake in 1515 in Sichuan-Yunnan region and M≥8.0 events in the neighboring area, and the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation effect of the lower crust and upper mantle.
        The results show that the Coulomb stress change increases significantly in the south section of the Xianshuihe Fault, the Anninghe Fault, the northern section of the Xiaojiang Fault, the southern section of the Longmen Shan Fault, the intersection of the Chuxiong-Jianshui Fault and the Xiaojiang Fault, and the Shawan section of the Litang Fault, in which the cumulative Coulomb stress change exceeds 0.1MPa. The assuming different friction coefficient has little effect on the stress change, as for the strike-slip dominated faults, the shear stress change is much larger than the normal stress change, and the shear stress change is the main factor controlling the Coulomb stress change on the fault plane. Meanwhile, we compare the Coulomb stress change in the 10km and 15km depths, and find that for most faults, the results are slightly different. Additionally, based on the existing focal mechanism solutions, we add the focal mechanism solutions of the 5 675 small-medium earthquakes(2.5≤M≤4.9)in Sichuan-Yunnan region from January 2009 to July 2019, and invert the directions of the three principal stresses and the stress shape factor in 0.1°×0.1° grid points; by combining the grid search method, we compare the inverted stress tensors with that from the actual seismic data, and further obtain the optimal stress tensors. Then, we project the stress tensors on the two inverted nodal planes separately, and select the maximum Coulomb stress change to represent the stress change at the node. The results show that the cumulative Coulomb stress change increase in the triple-junction of Sichuan-Yunnan-Tibet region is also significant, and the stress change exceeds 0.1MPa.
        Comprehensive analysis of the Coulomb stress change, seismic gaps and seismicity parameters suggest that more attention should be paid to the Anninghe Fault, the northern section of the Xiaojiang Fault, the south section of the Xianshuihe Fault, the southern section of the Longmen Shan Fault and the triple-junction of the Sichuan-Yunnan-Tibet region. These results provide a basis for future seismic hazard analysis in the Sichuan-Yunnan region.