SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY ›› 2012, Vol. ›› Issue (3): 401-414.

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CHEN Tao, LIU Yu-gang, MIN Wei, ZHOU Ben-gang   

  1. Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2012-01-18 Revised:2012-04-25 Online:2012-09-30 Published:2012-10-16


陈涛, 刘玉刚, 闵伟, 周本刚   

  1. 中国地震局地质研究所, 中国地震局活动构造与火山重点实验室, 北京 100029
  • 通讯作者: 刘玉刚
  • 基金资助:

Abstract: Many NW-trending faults have been developed on the north of the eastern segment of Altyn Tagh Fault. The Tarwan Fault,about 10km long and striking NW on the whole,is the western segment of the largest Tarwan-Dengdengshan-Chijiaciwo Fault among these faults. The fault appears as a straight linear scarp in the satellite image and a geomorphic scarp of dozens of centimeters to 5 meters high,topographically. The scarp dips NE and is composed mainly of beds of early Pleistocene conglomerate and Holocene aeolian sandy soil. As revealed by a measured topographic profile,the scarp composed of Holocene aeolian sandy soil is about 5m high,and that of early Pleistoscene conglomerate is about 1m high. Field investigation and trenches excavated on the vertical scarp have revealed the Tarwan Fault is a thrust fault,striking NW and dipping SW.The Geogene mudstone is thrust over the early Pleistocene conglomerate,with a throw of 0.5m. The Holocene aeolian sand and late Pleistocene gravel layers overlying the fault are not dislocated. The hanging wall of the fault is Geogene mudstone with rich groundwater and well-developed vegetation. Due to the protection and control of sand movement with vegetation,aeolian sand was accumulated constantly and preserved,and as a result,the aeolian sand layer became higher gradually. The foot wall of the fault consists of a Gobi gravel layer of a few centimeters thick on the surface and hard cemented conglomerate of early Pleistocene under it,with groundwater and vegetation being undeveloped. Therefore,Holocene aeolian sand is only developed on the hanging wall of the fault,and there is no Holocene stratum developed in the footwall. The height of the scarp formed on the early Pleistocene conglomerate is far lower than that on the Holocene aeolian sand. These findings indicate that the topographic scarp composed of Holocene aeolian sand was produced by external dynamic process rather than faulting,and that the Tarwan Fault is an early-middle Pleistocene thrust fault.

Key words: Tarwan Fault, geomorphic scarp, thrust fault

摘要: 阿尔金断裂东段北侧发育了多条NW向断裂,塔尔湾断裂是其中规模最大的塔尔湾-登登山-池家刺窝断裂的西段。该断裂总体走向NW,长约10km,在卫星影像上为一笔直的线性陡坎,地貌上为高几十cm至5m的地形陡坎。陡坎倾向NE,组成陡坎的地层主要有早更新世砾岩和全新世风积砂土等。通过地形剖面测量得到,由全新世风积砂组成的地貌陡坎高5m左右,由早更新世砾岩组成的地貌陡坎高1m左右。垂直地貌陡坎开挖的探槽揭示出,塔尔湾断裂为SW倾的逆断层,表现为新近纪泥岩逆冲于早更新世砾岩之上,断距为0.5m左右。全新世风积砂及晚更新世戈壁砾石层覆盖于断层之上,没有被错断。断裂上盘为新近纪泥岩,富含地下水,因此植被较发育; 由于植被的保护及固砂作用,风积砂不断堆积并保存下来,风积沙层逐渐增高。下盘除地表有几十cm厚的戈壁砾石层外,下部均为胶结坚硬的早更新世砾岩,不含地下水,植被不发育。全新世风积砂土只发育在塔尔湾断裂上盘,下盘没有全新世地层发育; 早更新世砾岩上的地貌陡坎高度远远小于全新世风积砂土上地貌陡坎的高度。这些都表明由全新世风积砂组成的地貌陡坎不是断裂活动形成的,而是外动力作用造成的。因此,塔尔湾断裂是一条早中更新世逆断裂。

关键词: 塔尔湾断裂, 地貌陡坎, 逆断裂

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