SEISMOLOGY AND EGOLOGY ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (1): 20-34.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2022.01.002

• Research paper • Previous Articles     Next Articles


HUANG Shuai-tang1)(), CHANG Xiang-de1),*(), MA Jian1), HU Wei-hua1), REN Jing2), LIU Jian-ming1), ZHANG Wen-xiu1), LAI Ai-jing3)   

  1. 1) Earthquake Agency of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi 830011, China
    2) China Earthquake Networks Center, Beijing 100045, China
    3) Akesu Earthquake Monitoring Center Station, Akesu 843000, Xinjiang, China
  • Received:2021-03-25 Revised:2021-10-15 Online:2022-02-20 Published:2022-04-20
  • Contact: CHANG Xiang-de


黄帅堂1)(), 常想德1),*(), 马建1), 胡伟华1), 任静2), 刘建明1), 张文秀1), 赖爱京3)   

  1. 1)新疆维吾尔自治区地震局, 乌鲁木齐 830011
    2)中国地震台网中心, 北京 100045
    3)新疆维吾尔自治区地震局, 阿克苏地震监测中心站, 阿克苏 843000
  • 通讯作者: 常想德
  • 作者简介:黄帅堂, 男, 1990年生, 2016年于中国地震局地震预测研究所获构造地质学专业硕士学位, 工程师, 研究方向为活动构造与构造地貌, 电话: 0991-3853817, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:


Thrust fault is the basic model of crustal deformation and also one of the major structural forms of orogenic belts, indicating the tectonic environment of compression. Most of the catastrophic earthquakes that affect human activity occur within the plates. In the interior of the plate, reverse faults are likely to develop as long as there is compressive stress in the regional sense or under some local tectonic conditions. It is considered that the NS compression resulting from collision of the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate is the main cause for the formation of the present tectonic framework in both north and south sides of Tianshan Mountains. The continuous crustal shortening and thickening has made the Quaternary active structures in the front margins of Tianshan Mountains well developed. Meanwhile, the new nappe structures in front of Tianshan Mountains are also the main sites for the preparation of medium-strong earthquakes in the Tianshan Mountains area, and their seismogenic mode is mostly in the forms of blind fault ramp-decollement plane-surface fault ramps.
The northern Tianshan inverse fault-fold belt is located at the junction between the northern foothill of Tianshan Mountains and Junggar Basin, where the Kusongmuqike piedmont fault is located in the south of Jinghe County, and is an important active thrust fault belt in the western northern Tianshan Mountains. In recent ten years, there were many earthquakes with magnitude 5.0 or above occurring in the eastern section of the fault zone. A detailed study of the geometric distribution and tectonic geomorphologic features is helpful to understand the tectonic deformation characteristics and regional strain distribution in the Tianshan area since the late Quaternary. The results of high-resolution remote sensing image interpretation, UAV aerial survey and differential GPS terrain profile survey combined with field geological survey show that the eastern segment of the Kusongmuqike piedmont fault is composed of two secondary reverse faults. Among them, the south branch, the Xinlongkou Fault, is composed of 5 en echelon-arranged sub-faults, with an overall trend of NW, dipping S, steep dip angle, and a length of about 48km. The fault offset the two-stage piedmont alluvial-pluvial fan and 5 river terraces, the activity time of terrace T1/T2 and fan3 is the latest, and the fault scarps are 3.6m to 4.7m high, being the product of concurrent fault activities. The vertical displacement of terrace T3 and T4 is 13.5m and 20.3m, respectively, and the vertical displacement of terrace T5 is roughly the same with that of the surrounding pluvial fan2, which is about 30m. On the fan1, there is no tectonic deformation observed in places where the fault passes through, and the initial landforms are retained on the surface. The north branch, the Hydrographic Station Fault, is distributed in an intermittent manner. The overall strike of the fault is near EW, with a total length of about 44km, and the fault offset multi-stage alluvial-pluvial fans. On the alluvial-pluvial fan of Fan3, two near-parallel normal scarps are developed in the northern margin of the alluvial-pluvial fan, while other faults cut through the alluvial-pluvial fan and the surface gully, forming steep reverse scarps on the surface. According to the cumulative height of the normal scarps, the maximum vertical displacement is 17.2m and the minimum vertical displacement is 0.3m, the scarp height is concentrated between 4.7~9.9m. On the reverse fault scarps, the maximum vertical displacement is 7.8~9.8m, the minimum scarp height is 2.4~3.1m, and the scarp height concentrates between 3.3~9.2m. Several sub-faults are developed scatteredly between the two sets of faults, with scarp heights ranging 0.5~1.0m. As far as the scarp height distribution is concerned, its vertical displacement shows a distribution law of decreasing from west to east. These results may contribute to the further understanding of the strain partitioning pattern in the western part of the northern Tianshan.

Key words: the northern foot of Tianshan, Kusongmuqike piedmont fault, geometry, fault scarp, vertical displacement


北天山逆断裂-褶皱带位于天山北麓与准噶尔盆地的交界处, 其中库松木契克山山前断裂位于精河县城南部, 是北天山西部山前一条重要的逆冲活动断裂带。断裂带东段附近近十年来至少发生过3次5.0级以上地震, 详细研究其几何展布、 构造地貌特征有助于理解天山地区晚第四纪以来的构造变形特征以及区域应变分配模式。文中利用高分辨遥感Google Earth影像解译、 无人机航测和差分GPS地形剖面测量, 并结合野外地质调查等手段进行了探察。 所得结果显示, 库松木契克山山前断裂东段由南、 北2支次级逆断裂构成。其中, 南支新龙口断层由5条雁列展布的次级断层组成, 总体走向NW, 倾向S, 倾角陡立, 全长约48km, 断层断错山前2期冲洪积扇和5级河流阶地, T1、 T2阶地和fan3的活动时代最新, 断层陡坎高3.6~4.7m, 为断层同期活动的产物, T3和T4阶地垂直位移量分别为13.5m和20.3m, T5阶地的垂直位移与阶地周边fan2洪积扇基本一致, 约为30m。冲洪积扇fan1上断层通过的部位无构造变形, 地表保留了原始地貌形态; 北支水文站断层断续分布, 总体走向近EW, 全长约44km, 断错多期冲洪积扇, 在fan3冲洪积扇北缘发育2条近平行的正向陡坎, 其他断层则切穿洪积扇及表面的冲沟, 在地表形成陡立的反向陡坎。顺坡向陡坎高度累加的最大垂直位移量达17.2m, 最小垂直位移量为0.3m, 陡坎高度主要集中于4.7~9.9m。 反向断层陡坎的最大垂直位移量为7.8~9.8m, 最小陡坎高度为2.4~3.1m, 陡坎高度主要集中于3.3~9.2m, 在2组断层之间零星发育多条次级断层, 陡坎高0.5~1.0m不等。就陡坎高度分布而言, 其垂直位移有自西向东逐渐降低的分布规律。这些结果有助于进一步理解北天山西部地区的应变分配模式。

关键词: 天山北麓, 库松木契克山山前断裂, 几何结构, 断层陡坎, 垂直位错

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