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    GEOLOGICAL DISASTERS AND SURFACE RUPTURES OF JANUARY 23, 2024 MS7.1 WUSHI EARTHQUAKE, XINJIANG, CHINA
    ZHANG Bo-xuan, QIAN Li, LI Tao, CHEN Jie, XU Jian-hong, YAO Yuan, FANG Li-hua, Xie Chao, CHEN Jian-bo, LIU Guan-shen, HU Zong-kai, YANG Wen-xin, ZHANG Jun-long, PANG Wei
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2024, 46 (1): 220-234.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2024.01.013
    Abstract473)      PDF(pc) (14935KB)(289)       Save

    The MS7.1 earthquake in Wushi, Xinjiang on January 23, 2024, represents the largest earthquake in the Tianshan seismic belt since the 1992 Suusamyr MS7.3 earthquake in Kyrgyzstan. Preliminary precise aftershock localization and initial field investigations indicate an NE-trending aftershock zone with a length of 62 kilometers that is concentrated at the mountain-basin transition area. This event produced geological hazards, including slope instability, rockfalls, rolling stones, and ground fissures, primarily within a 30-kilometer radius around the epicenter. The epicenter, located approximately 7 kilometers north of the precise positioning in this study, witnessed a rapid decrease in geological hazards such as collapses, with no discernible fresh activity observed on the steep fault scarp along the mountainfront. Consequently, it is inferred that the causative fault for this main shock may be an NW-dipping reverse fault, with potential rupture not reaching the surface.

    Moreover, a surface rupture zone with a general trend of N60°E, extending approximately 2 kilometers, and displaying a maximum vertical offset of 1 meter, was identified on the western side of the micro-epicenter at the Qialemati River. This rupture zone predominantly follows the pre-existing fault scarp on higher geomorphic surfaces, indicating that it is not new. Its characteristics are mainly controlled by a southeast-dipping reverse fault, opposite in dip to the causative fault of the main shock. The scale of this 2-kilometer-long surface rupture zone is notably smaller than the aftershock zone of the Wushi MS7.1 earthquake. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate whether or not the MS5.7 aftershock and the relationship between the SE-dipping reverse fault responsible for the surface rupture and the NW-dipping causative fault of the main shock produced it.

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    PALEOSEISMOLOGIC STUDY ON THE YUEXI FAULT IN THE MIDSECTION OF THE DALIANGSHAN FAULT ZONE SINCE THE LATE QUATERNARY
    LIU Qing, LIU Shao, ZHANG Shi-min
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 321-337.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.002
    Abstract241)   HTML44)    PDF(pc) (15181KB)(230)       Save

    The Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system(XXFS)is a strongly active left-lateral strike-slip fault zone on the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. It controls the eastern boundary of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, Which is one of the most active tectonic zones in the north-south seismic belts. There have been 36 destructive earthquakes since 1327AD. The historical strong earthquakes in the middle section of the XXFS fault system are mainly distributed along Anning River faults and Zemu River faults, such as M7.0 in 814AD, M71/2 in 1536AD, M63/4 in 1732AD, M71/2 in 1850AD and M63/4 earthquakes in 1952AD. However, as an important part of the middle of XXFS, the Daliangshan fault zone only recorded a magnitude of M51/2 in 1480AD, and there was a lack of earthquake records above a magnitude of 6 which may be due to the quiet period of earthquakes, or the location of remote mountainous areas where historical records are missing. The paleoseismic study revealed that there were surface rupture events along the Butuo and Jiaojihe faults in the southern section of the Daliangshan fault zone in 970-1510AD and 1310-1660AD respectively, with a magnitude of not less than 6.5; Along the Puxiong fault in the middle section of the Daliangshan fault zone, there was a surface rupture event in 927-1360AD, with a magnitude of not less than 7.0. However, there are no corresponding historical records of the earthquakes in these three historical periods, indicating that strong historic earthquakes in the Daliangshan fault zone may be missing.

    The Yuexi fault is the only branch fault in the Daliangshan fault zone dominated by thrust slip. The fault spreads in an arc shape, with a total length of about 50km, and controls the quaternary basins such as Zhenxi, Xinmin, and Yuexi. The topographic height difference between the fault’s two sides is about 2 000m. The middle section of the fault is the eastern boundary fault of the Yuexi Basin, which cuts through the piedmont alluvial fan, forming fault scarps several meters to tens of meters high. Together with the Puxiong fault on the east side, which is dominated by left laterally slipping, a positive flower-type structure is formed in the middle section of the Daliangshan fault zone. There are previous discoveries about fault scarps of the Yuexi fault on the piedmont alluvial fans, but no paleoseismic research has been reported up to now.

    On the basis of remote sensing interpretation and field geological and geomorphological survey of the Yuexi fault, a big trench was excavated across the 12m-high fault scarp on the late quaternary alluvial fan in the Yuexi Basin, which revealed four paleoseismic events since the late quaternary and the coseismic vertical slip of the last one is ~1.2m. Based on trench analysis, 14 stratigraphic units are defined from which carbon samples are acquired for geochronological analysis. Through radioactive carbon dating and correction of the dating data by the OxCal software, and OxCal model building to limit the age of paleoearthquake events, the ages of the four events were 25260-23880BC, 23930-23500BC, 20980-1400BC, and 270-1500AD. According to historical records, a destructive earthquake occurred in Yuexi County on September 13, 1480AD, which triggered landslides, 7 earthquakes on that day, and more than 20 aftershocks as of the 27th, with a tremor range of 150km. We consider that the latest event should be the Yuexi earthquake in 1480AD according to the historical records of earthquake damages. Based on the paleoearthquake research, this event very likely led to a coseismic rupture of the Yuexi and the Puxiong faults. According to the empirical scaling laws between magnitude and rupture length, the magnitude of the surface ruptured paleoearthquake is estimated to be more than M7.0. The results provide basic data for evaluating seismic activity and analyzing seismic risk in this area.

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    FINE CHARACTERISTICS OF EARTHQUAKE SURFACE RUPTURE ZONE BASED ON HIGH-RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGE: A CASE STUDY OF LITANG FAULT
    YOU Zi-cheng, BI Hai-yun, ZHENG Wen-jun, PENG Hui, LIANG Shu-min, DUAN Lei, QIN Yi-gen
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (5): 1057-1073.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.05.002
    Abstract208)   HTML28)    PDF(pc) (10517KB)(225)       Save

    Strong earthquakes(magnitude>6.5)typically cause coseismic surface ruptures of several kilometers or even hundreds of kilometers long on the surface. Coseismic surface rupture is the most intuitive geomorphic representation of an earthquake on the surface, and its geometry and distribution characteristics provide important information about the fault activity. Field investigation is the most basic means for research on coseismic surface fractures, but for areas that are hard to access or have harsh climatic environments, field investigation is often greatly limited. In recent years, the increasing abundance of high-resolution remote sensing images and the rapid development of photogrammetry methods can help us quickly obtain high-resolution topographic and geomorphic data of the study area, to better identify the fine geometry of the earthquake surface rupture zone and measure the offsets of geomorphic markers along the fault. The Litang Fault is a sinistral strike-slip fault located within the Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block on the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Several historical earthquake events have occurred on this fault, such as the 1890 and 1948 earthquakes, and clear seismic surface ruptures still exist along the fault so far. Previous studies have conducted a series of works on the coseismic surface rupture of this fault, but most of these works were based on field investigations or relatively low-resolution remote sensing images, and there is still a lack of fine research on the coseismic surface rupture of the fault. In this paper, the coseismic surface rupture of the 1890 earthquake which occurred on the Litang Fault was selected as the study object. To obtain high-resolution topographic data of this fault, the WorldView satellite stereo images were used to generate a 0.5-m-resolution orthophoto and a 1-m-resolution Digital Elevation Model(DEM)of the Litang fault based on the photogrammetry method. With the high-resolution topographic data, the fine geometry of the 1890 earthquake surface rupture zone was mapped in detail. The mapping results show that the total length of the surface rupture is about 27km, with an overall strike of N40°W. The rupture is mainly characterized by sinistral strike-slip motion, with a certain degree of dip-slip component in local areas. Except for the interval of approximately 6km with no surface rupture at the Wuliang River floodplain in the Litang Basin, the surface ruptures are relatively continuous at other locations. In addition, various rupture styles have been identified along the fault, including en echelon tension cracks, mole tracks, sag ponds, fault scarps, and displaced gullies. Furthermore, the sinistral offsets of 90 groups of linear geomorphic markers such as gullies and ridges were measured along the fault, which range from 1m to 82.4m. We further estimated the Cumulative Offset Probability Distribution(COPD)of the offsets located on the terrace I of the Wuliang River, which are all in the range of 0-9m. The COPD plot displays four distinct peaks at 1.3m, 2.4m, 4.3m, and6.1m, respectively. Previous studies have reported that the terrace I of Wuliang River formed at about(4 620±40)a BP. Thus, it can be indicated that the Litang fault may have experienced at least four strong earthquake events since(4 620±40)a BP, and the smallest peak of 1.3m may represent the coseismic displacement of the most recent 1890 earthquake. The rupture length of the latest 1890 earthquake was about 27km, and the coseismic sinistral offset was about 1.3m, yielding an estimated moment magnitude of MW6.8-7.1. The coseismic offset of the other three earthquakes was about 1.8m, 1.9m, and 1.1m from old to new, respectively, yielding a magnitude estimate of MW7.3, MW7.3, and MW7.0, with a size comparable to the 1890 earthquake. The research results fully demonstrate the potential of high-resolution remote sensing images in the study of fine characteristics of earthquake surface rupture.

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    APPLICATIONS AND ADVANCES FOR THE COSEISMIC DEFORMA-TION OBSERVATIONS, EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND SEISMOGENIC STRUCTURE INVESTIGATION USING INSAR
    ZHAO De-zheng, QU Chun-yan, ZHANG Gui-fang, GONG Wen-yu, SHAN Xin-jian, ZHU Chuan-hua, ZHANG Guo-hong, SONG Xiao-gang
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 570-592.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.016
    Abstract267)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (7303KB)(203)       Save

    With the recent development of geodetic observation theory, the increasing satellite platforms and the progress of related technology, InSAR is emerging as a new data source and useful tool for remotely-based geodetic observations. More importantly, InSAR observations play an increasingly irreplaceable role in the field of coseismic deformation observations, earthquake emergency responses, earthquake hazard evaluation and seismogenic structure research. Particularly, InSAR is the most commonly used tool in coseismic deformation measurements on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau or other global seismic zones, where GPS data are sparse or inaccessible in some cases. Specifically, InSAR measurements help us to respond in time after disastrous earthquakes and provide valuable information associated with how the surface of the crust deforms due to large earthquakes. In the area of scientific research, InSAR provides products of surface deformation observations and serves as model constraints kinematically or dynamically in identifying the buried faults, studying the characteristics of seismogenic faults, obtaining three-dimensional displacements, and investigating the relationship between earthquakes and tectonic structures. InSAR observations and its deformation products have the technical advantages of large spatial scale, high precision and in-time, compared to other geodetic measurements. Consequently, InSAR has the ability to provide scientific and technological support for earthquake emergency observations, and meeting the practical needs of earthquake disaster reduction on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    In this review, we mostly limit our focus to the application of InSAR technology in earthquake cycle deformation monitoring in different structural settings on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. We also summarize the InSAR-based studies on fault kinematics and seismogenic structures related to some noted earthquakes on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. We highlight how the applications of InSAR data can greatly promote earthquake science and can be used as routine observations in some important areas. Then proceed to discuss the cutting-edge development trend and some new challenges of InSAR technology, which are frequently discussed and investigated, but not well resolved, in recent applications. The endeavors in increasing the precision of small-magnitude deformation measurements and expanding the InSAR data volumes can make the scientific objectives of earthquake disaster reduction on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and its surrounding areas feasible and reliable. To better understand how InSAR observations have changed the way we study earthquakes, we summarize the development, commercialization, insights, and existing challenges associated with InSAR coseismic deformation measurements and application in recent two decades.

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    RESEARCH PROGRESS AND PROSPECT OF SEISMIC FLUID GEOCHEMISTRY IN SHORT-IMMINENT EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION
    LI Ying, FANG Zhen, ZHANG Chen-lei, LI Ji-ye, BAO Zhi-cheng, ZHANG Xiang, LIU Zhao-fei, ZHOU Xiao-cheng, CHEN Zhi, DU Jian-guo
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (3): 593-621.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.03.001
    Abstract228)   HTML39)    PDF(pc) (2594KB)(202)       Save

    Establishing the method of short-imminent earthquake prediction is the most effective way to reduce losses caused by earthquakes and is also an important scientific issue. In the 1960s and 1970s, research on earthquake prediction was carried out successively in China and other countries in the world, and after over 50 years of development, abundant precursor observation data and earthquake cases have been accumulated, and significant progress has been made in the research of formation mechanisms of precursor anomalies and prediction methods.
    Fluid is the most active component in the earth’s interior, and the fluids in various layers of the earth often carry characteristic geochemical information. The composition and variation of seismic fluid geochemistry are sensitive to changes of underground physical and chemical conditions, making them powerful indicators of seismic and tectonic activities. The formation mechanisms of fluid geochemical precursor anomalies mainly include liquid mixing, water-rock reaction, deep magma upwelling, seismic wave vibration, pore compression and pressure solubility mechanism. The fluid chemical anomalies associated with earthquakes can be attributed to the migration process of liquid mixing and the water-rock reaction mechanism caused by crustal stress changes.
    This paper systematically summarizes the empirical formulas on the duration of anomaly, earthquake magnitude and epicentral distance, as well as the seismic fluid geochemical models and methods for short-imminent prediction established both domestically and internationally. In addition, four types of seismic fluid geochemical techniques and methods currently used in earthquake situation consultation in China are described. Nine of the most widely used prediction methods are selected to inspect the twenty-seven cases of earthquakes containing water radon or gas radon anomalies in the Earthquake Cases of China from 1997 to 2020. Generally, these methods all show strong applicability. However, empirical formulas based on different regions of the world selected to inspect the above cases generally show weak applicability. It indicates that current earthquake prediction models or methods are only representative to a certain extent, and there are still great difficulties in practical application, which also directly affects the prediction efficiency of the fluid geochemical models applied to the judgment of earthquake three elements.
    Combined with our previous results, the paper puts forward the applicable theory for the precursor mechanism-based short-imminent prediction by seismic fluid geochemistry, that is, acquiring the dynamic change characteristics of the geochemical field based on the spatio-temporal dense and multi-item observation network, establishing a deep-shallow coupling anomaly genetic model based on the material cyclic reaction, and determining the temporal and spatial relationship between the evolution of regional fluid geochemical field and fluid geochemical changes at each measuring point in the fault zone. The construction of the geochemical subsystem of China Seismic Experimental Site provides a platform for capturing the short-imminent earthquake anomalies and constructing effective fluid geochemical anomaly mechanisms and models. The causes and abnormal mechanism of fluid geochemistry can be revealed and the seismic fluid geochemical short-imminent prediction method can be established in the light of the principle of seeking the source by field and combining the field and source.

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    NEW ACTIVITY PHENOMENA REVEALED BY TRENCH ON THE NORTH SIDE OF NÜSHAN LAKE IN THE TANLU FAULT ZONE AND DISCUSSION
    ZHAO Peng, LI Jun-hui, TAO Yue-chao, SHU Peng, FANG Zhen
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 338-354.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.003
    Abstract163)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (13253KB)(174)       Save

    The Tan-Lu fault zone is a huge seismic-tectonic belt in the eastern China. It can be generally divided into three segments: the north, the middle, and the south segment. Among them, recent activity of the middle segment has been most thoroughly studied. The junction section between Jiangsu and Anhui Province is located in the transition zone between the middle and the south segment of the fault zone. Due to the complex tectonic structure, unevenly distributed Quaternary deposits and severely transformed surface landscape, it is difficult to study the recent Quaternary activity of the fault. Research in recent years have shown that the faults in the Fushan and Ziyang areas to the south of the Huaihe River were active during late Pleistocene-early Holocene, and their activities were characterized by thrusting, normal faulting, tension and twisting. How is the fault activity extending southwards to Nüshan Lake and whether the late Quaternary activity occurred at Nüshan Lake are issues worthy of attention.

    Geomorphology of the study area is characterized by slope plains and uplands. The uplands mostly extend in near north-south direction and are obviously controlled by the faults. In the remote sensing satellite images, linearity features of the fault from Huaihe River to Nüshan Lake are distinct. Field investigations confirmed that in the farmland to the east of Liugudui Village, north of Nüshan Lake, there are scarps extending in NNE direction and distributing intermittently due to faulting. In this study, we chose relatively clear scarps and excavated trenches across the fault. The trench revealed abundant faulting phenomena. The trench wall revealed a fault deformation zone as wide as 2~4 meters, consisting of 3 fault branches. Among them, faults f1 and f3 are the boundary faults while fault f2 is developed within the deformation zone. The latest activity of fault f3 on the west side has ruptured the overlying horizon of late Pleistocene strata, and the rupture extended upwards to the surface. OSL dating samples were collected in the uppermost layer of the faulted horizons. Dating results show that the fault has been active at least in late Pleistocene. The scratches and steps developed on the fault plane indicate that the fault has experienced thrusting and dextral faulting. The deformation zone appears dark brown, which is conspicuously different from the horizons on both sides. Materials in the fault zone are compacted, crumpled and deformed, and the alignment direction is consistent with the fault. The deformation zone contains gravels and calcium tuberculosis of different sizes. Two brownish-yellow clay masses in irregular shape are deposited near the upper part of the fault plane. Among them, the clay mass tk1 on the south wall of the trench is quite clear, with the upper part connected with f1 and the middle part obliquely cut by f2. OSL dating samples were collected from clay masses from two trench walls. The dating results are consistent with the late Pleistocene horizons, indicating that the brownish-yellow clay masses were involved in the fault zone when faulting occurred in the middle-late Pleistocene, and the faulting event occurred roughly between(50.92±4.65)kaBP and(27.12±2.26)kaBP. Our research shows that late Quaternary activity of the most active fault of the eastern branch of the Tanlu fault zone extended southwards to Nüshan Lake in Mingguang, but intensity of the fault activity has weakened.

    The segment from Sihong in Jiangsu Province to Mingguang in Anhui Province is the structural node between the middle segment and the southern segment of the Tanlu fault zone. Trench exposures in Wangqian, Sunpaifang, Dahongshan in Sihong and Santang, Ziyang, Zhuliu in Mingguang and other places revealed a variety of faulting phenomena such as wedges, wedge-shaped mass, normal faulting, negative flower-shaped structure, clay mass, etc. These show that faults that were dominantly thrusting led to the local and abundant phenomena near surface in this region. The reasons for these different phenomena may be related to the influence of regional complex stresses and their changes on large-scale fault systems at different time and spaces scales.

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    RESEARCH ON COMPREHENSIVE STANDARDIZATION FOR SURVEYING AND PROSPECTING OF ACTIVE FAULT
    LI Yi-shi
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 455-463.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.009
    Abstract203)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (926KB)(169)       Save

    Active fault surveying and prospecting is the fundamental work for earthquake prevention and disaster reduction. China began to conduct quantitative research on active faults in the 1980s, and then carried out surveying and prospecting of active faults and seismic hazards assessment in several cities. The results provide a scientific basis for urban land planning, urban disaster prevention planning, construction project site selection and fault setbacks, potential seismic hazards investigation, earthquake emergency preparedness, etc.

    Standards research in surveying and prospecting of active faults began at the beginning of this century in pace with the development of professional work. Since 2013, the research on the technical system and standards system about surveying and prospecting of active faults was carried out, and a series of standards for technical methods and outcomes were compiled successively. Currently, 1 national standard and 9 sectors standards have been released, and 11 standards are in processing. The national standard GB/T 36072 “Surveying and Prospecting of Active Fault” stipulates the process, content, outcomes, and main technical methods. The 9 sectors standards cover techniques and methods consisting of remote sensing survey, fault geomorphological survey, paleo-seismic trenching, drilling, and fault strip mapping, and stipulate the requirements for the steps, technical indicators, and outcomes of the corresponding technical methods. These standards have become important technical support for active fault survey and prospecting and the main basis for operational supervision.

    However, there are still many gaps in the standards, and there are obvious contradictions between the supply and demand of the standards. At the same time, the compiling of standards for surveying and prospecting of active faults scattered in different periods and institutions, leading to the problems of function matching and technical indicators coordination among standards. This paper applies comprehensive standardization to surveying and prospecting of active faults, with the objectives to improve the work quality and the application benefit, by regarding the standardization object as a complete system, decomposing comprehensively the relevant elements in three aspects: business process, outcomes and application, and constructing the standard-complex of surveying and prospecting active faults. This is the first attempt to apply comprehensive standardization to the earthquake industry.

    The working process of surveying and prospecting of active faults can be decomposed into six steps: preparation and revision of implementation plan, determination of fault spatial distribution and parameters, identification of fault activity, analysis of the deep seismic-tectonic environment, assessment of seismic hazards of active faults, and determination of fault deformation zone width. The preparation and revision of the implementation plan comprise data collection, controlled detection, preliminary identification of fault activity, and revision of the implementation plan; the determination of fault spatial distribution and parameters include the implementation and on-site investigation of technical methods such as high-resolution remote sensing interpretation, geological and geomorphic investigation, fault geomorphological survey, geophysical exploration, drilling, paleo-seismic trenching, and dating. The relevant elements of the business process mainly include the work content, technical methods, and technical requirements for project implementation of these links, as well as the technical requirements for project implementation plan preparation and outcomes check and acceptance.

    The outcomes of surveying and prospecting active faults are divided into survey data, professional outcomes maps, reports, databases, etc. The relevant elements of the outcomes mainly include the technical requirements of the original data and the phased outcomes obtained from the analysis, professional outcomes maps, reports, and databases.

    The application of surveying and prospecting of active faults is oriented to meet the needs of disaster reduction, and its outcomes are applied to the practice of earthquake prevention and disaster reduction. Relevant elements of application mainly include technical requirements for fault classification and fault cataloging, three-dimensional modeling, hazard assessment, fault avoidance, data management, and information service system construction.

    Based on the analysis of relevant elements of business process, outcomes, and application, combined with the current status of existing standards, the framework structure of five sequences on surveying and prospecting of active faults standard-complex is put forward, namely, business foundation, project implementation, technical method, outcomes, and application, together with a detailed list of 41 standards. Among them there are 8 items of business foundation, 3 items of project implementation, 15 items of technology and methods, 10 items of outcomes, and 5 items of application.

    The standard-complex of surveying and prospecting of active faults covers the standards required by the entire business chain, and the standards are interconnected and coordinated. Taking the advantage of the complete set of standards will lay a good foundation for further improving the standardization level of surveying and prospecting of active faults and accelerating the progress of developing standards, and also provide a beneficial demonstration for the high-quality innovative and standardization development of other business areas of earthquake prevention and disaster reduction.

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    THE PRESENT CRUSTAL DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HAIYUAN-LIUPANSHAN FAULT ZONE FROM INSAR AND GPS OBSERVATIONS
    JIANG Feng-yun, JI Ling-yun, ZHU Liang-yu, LIU Chuan-jin
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 377-400.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.005
    Abstract304)   HTML21)    PDF(pc) (14678KB)(168)       Save

    The Haiyuan-Liupanshan tectonic belt is one of the most significant tectonic deformation areas in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau with frequent strong earthquakes. It is an important opportunity to study the northeast extension of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and an ideal place to study the earthquake breeding process.

    The published GPS observations show that the southwest side of the Haiyuan fault may still be undergoing deformation caused by the crustal viscoelastic relaxation effect of the 1920 Haiyuan M8.5 earthquake. And the publicly published leveling data results show local vertical deformation of the crust in the area west of the Liupanshan fault is significant. According to the seismic geological data, there exist historical earthquake rupture gaps in the middle and south sections of the Liupanshan fault and the southeast section of the Xiangshan-Tianjingshan fault in the Haiyuan-Liupanshan structural area, which have the background of strong earthquakes above M7.0. In view of the low spatial resolution of GPS and leveling observations, we need to use high-resolution crustal deformation fields to further study the crustal deformation characteristics of the above regions. Therefore, we further discuss the above issues in combination with InSAR observations.

    The Sentinel-1A/B SAR data of two orbits covering the Haiyuan-Liupanshan fault from 2014 to 2020 were processed to obtain the current crustal deformation field in the line-of-sight direction. Furthermore, the high-density regional crustal deformation field was obtained by integrating InSAR and published GPS observations of the horizontal crustal movement velocity field on a time scale of 20 years. By comparing the observations of GPS, leveling and InSAR and high-resolution three-dimensional deformation integrated GPS-InSAR field, the characteristics of crustal deformation and strain field in the region are analyzed and discussed. The main conclusions are as follows:

    (1)GPS and InSAR observations show that the post-seismic viscoelastic relaxation effect of the 1920 Haiyuan M8.5 earthquake may still be pronounced on the south side of the Haiyuan fault, but this conclusion is still speculative and needs to be confirmed by further observations;

    (2)The high-resolution horizontal deformation field from GPS-InSAR shows that the decrease of the sinistral slip rate of the Haiyuan fault along the fault strike mainly occurs in the Middle East section. In contrast, the decrease of the middle and west sections is not significant, which may be related to the transformation of the left-lateral strike-slip to thrust nappe structure between the Haiyuan fault and the Liupanshan fault.

    (3)GPS vertical and leveling observations both show that the vertical crustal deformation characteristics in the middle and south sections of the Liupanshan fault are similar to the vertical deformation of the Longmenshan fault before the Wenchuan earthquake. Considering the similar structural characteristics of the Liupanshan fault and the Longmenshan fault, and combining with the seismic and geological data, we believe that the Liupanshan fault may be in the relatively late stage of the earthquake breeding process. It can also be recognized by the high-resolution horizontal deformation and strain field derived from GPS-InSAR data. According to the fault motion parameters obtained in our study and the existing seismic and geological data, it is estimated that the maximum moment magnitude of an earthquake in the middle-south section of Liupanshan Mountain is approximately 7.5.

    (4)The areas with rapid maximum strain accumulation in the study region are mainly concentrated in the vicinity of the Haiyuan fault and the left lateral shear zone between the Haiyuan fault and the Xiangshan-Tianjingshan fault. The dilatation strain rate west of the Liupanshan fault shows prominent compressive deformation characteristics corresponding to the nappe deformation in the Liupanshan tectonic area. The strain rate field in the southeast section of the Xiangshan-Tianjingshan fault is smaller than that of the surrounding area. There is a strain mismatch phenomenon, which may be related to the preparation for strong earthquakes. From the perspective of rotational deformation, the study area presents multiple deformation units, among which counterclockwise rotation corresponds to left-lateral strike-slip deformation(the left-lateral shear belt from the Haiyuan fault to the Xiangshan-Tianjingshan fault). In contrast, clockwise rotation corresponds to right-lateral strike-slip deformation(the right-lateral shear belt in the western margin of Ordos and Longxi block).

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    GRAIN SIZE AND MICROSTRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF HOLOCENE MEGAFLOOD SLACK WATER DEPOSITS IN THE MIDDLE REACHES OF THE YARLUNG TSANGPO RIVER
    XU Bo, WANG Ping, WANG Hui-ying, GUO Qiao-qiao, SHI Ling-fan, SHI Yu-xiang
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 305-320.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.001
    Abstract219)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (6489KB)(168)       Save

    The terrain in southeastern Tibet is steep and the valleys are crisscrossed. Since the Quaternary, glacial ice and debris have blocked the course of the Yarlung Tsangpo River and its tributary river valleys to form giant dammed lakes, and the huge flood deposits formed by the dammed lake outburst floods are often associated with moraines, ice water deposits, lacustrine deposits, aeolian sand or other running water sediments to form complex river valley accumulation landforms. Different types of sediments in alpine and canyon areas are similar in morphology, structure and fabric, and are difficult to distinguish. Grain size and morphological characteristics are the most important structural characteristics of sediment, and the distribution rules are controlled by many factors such as sedimentary environment, physical properties of detrital material, transporting medium and transporting mode, etc., which is an important proxy index for restoring paleoclimate and inverting paleoenvironment. However, the relevant research on identifying sediment types in alpine valley area of southeast Tibet by grain size and morphology index is still in the exploratory stage. In order to understand the particle size characteristics and spatial differentiation laws of outburst flood sediments and the micromorphological characteristics of particle surfaces, we collected 33 samples of Holocene flood retention sediments preserved along the river within about 350km from the outlet of the Jiacha Gorge in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Tsangpo River to Pai Town, and measured them with Malvern 3000 laser diffraction particle size meter and Zeiss Signma scanning electron microscope, combined with digital geomorphology(DEM)data extracted river channel width and steepness coefficient. The features of spatial distribution law of particle size are analyzed, and the following understanding is obtained. The particle size of outburst flood retention deposits is characterized on the whole by fine-silty sand(2.57~5.18Φ)with poor sorting, positive skew and narrow peak state. Two end element models are obtained: The main peak of EM1 terminal element is 3.16Φ, with an average percentage content of 42.7%, which may represent the alluvial characteristics of higher energy of outburst floods in alpine valley areas, and the main peak of EM2 terminal elements is 2.06Φ with an average percentage content of 55.6%, which can be used to indicate the accumulation process of the outburst flood lag deposits. Affected by the width of the river, the EM1 content has a tendency to increase downstream, while EM2 has the opposite trend. The surface microstructure of quartz particles in the outburst flood lag deposits is mainly characterized by mechanical scratches, shell-like fractures, upturn cleavage and cleavage steps, with low structural maturity, mostly angular shape, and rare denudation pores of chemical origin. As a typical representative of climbing sand dunes in the valley area of the semi-humid monsoon area, the genesis of the dunes is of great guiding significance for revealing the source of sand dunes in the valley area of the alpine valley area, identifying paleoflood deposit and aeolian deposit, distinguishing aeolian deposit and paleoflood slackwater deposits on both sides of the riverbank, and windbreak and sand fixation engineering in the Yarlung Tsangpo River. By comparing the particle size and surface micromorphology characteristics of the known outburst flood deposits of the Yarlung Tsangpo River, we believe that the sand source of the Fozhang dunes is mainly from the outburst flood deposits and was transformed later by wind forces.

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    EVIDENCE OF LATE QUATERNARY TECTONIC ACTIVITY OF THE BEIDA SHAN FAULT, SOUTHERN MARGIN OF THE ALASHAN BLOCK
    ZUO Yu-qi, YANG Hai-bo, YANG Xiao-ping, ZHAN Yan, LI An, SUN Xiang-yu, HU Zong-kai
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 355-376.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.004
    Abstract184)   HTML36)    PDF(pc) (27392KB)(165)       Save

    The southern Alashan block is located at the crustal front of the northern Tibetan plateau. It was initially considered as a relatively stable area with weak tectonic activity. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have shown that the Alashan block has undergone significant tectonic deformation since the Cenozoic. Multiple active faults with a horse-tail distribution are developed in the southern margin of the Alashan block. However, there is still controversy over the tectonic deformation patterns of these active faults. One view is that the fault system in the southern margin of Alashan is the result of the eastward extension of the Altyn Tagh Fault and belongs to the tail structure of the strike-slip fault. Another view is that the fault system in the southern Alashan block is the result of the revival of the pre-existing fault caused by the northward compression and thrust of the Tibetan plateau. Therefore, deciphering fault’s kinematics and slip rates since the late Quaternary in the southern Alashan block is crucial to understand the tectonic deformation pattern of the block and its response to Tibet’s northward growth. In this paper, combined with interpretations of remote sensing images and field investigations, we documented the Quaternary activity of the Beida Shan Fault, one of the major faults in the southern Alashan block, along the segment developed in Quaternary alluvium.

    The Beida Shan Fault is a sinistral strike-slip fault with paralleled north and south branches that displaced the late Quaternary alluvial fans and terraces, forming offset gullies and fault scarps. According to the geometric distribution characteristics, activity and the landforms along the fault, we divided the fault into three segments: the Langwa Shan segment, the northern branch of the Jiapiquan Shan segment, and the southern branch of the Jiapiquan Shan segment. The fault is east-west trending, and the offset geomorphic features along the fault reveal that there are differences in the activity of different segments. The Langwa Shan segment is 10km long and developed at the junction of bedrock and alluvial fan. The fault trace is straight, and a series of gullies and ridges offset by the fault indicate that it is a sinistral strike-slip fault. The Jiapiquan Shan segment is 35km long and divided into two parallel north and south branches with a spacing of about 1.5km. The north branch fault strikes NE on the east side of Langwa Shan and has an angle of about 30° with the south branch fault. After extending about 2km to the northeast direction and entering the north side of Dahong Shan, the fault turns to the EW direction and is parallel to the south branch fault. It is distributed along the boundary between the bedrock and the alluvial fan with the south or north fault scarps and the secondary branch faults. To the east, the north branch fault is developed in bedrock, which is mainly characterized by offset gullies and ridges. The southern branch fault offset multi-stage alluvial fan, forming fault scarps of different heights and left-lateral offset gullies of different scales, and the exposed fault profiles show high angle reverse faults, which dip south or north, indicating that this segment is sinistral strike-slip.

    Based on the 1.5m resolution DEM data obtained from UAV-SfM, we measured the horizontal displacement of fault landforms using the LaDiCaoZ software developed by Zielke et al.(2012) on the MATLAB platform. Combined with field survey data, we obtained the left-lateral horizontal displacements of 70 sites along the Beida Shan Fault. The sinistral offset of~1m is not included in slip distribution statistics due to limitations of the quantity and data accuracy. Statistical analysis of the displacements reveals that the left-lateral displacements along the fault are concentrated between 3m to 20m, with the majority in two pronounced peaks at 5.3m and 10.1m. The 5.3m peak contains the most data points, with 17 displacements data, accounting for 24% of the total, while the 10.1m peak contains 6 data points, accounting for 9% of the total. This indicates that the Beida Shan Fault has experienced multiple seismic events involving the displacement and rupture of stratigraphic layers on the surface.

    An~8km-long surface rupture is discovered on the south fault branch, and it is represented by of fault scarps and of tens of centimeters 1~2m left-lateral displacement of small gullies. Fresh surface rupture and left-lateral offset gullies indicate the latest fault activity. Using the previously dated alluvial fan ages in Taohuala Shan, ~30km south of the Beida Shan, we calculated the late Pleistocene sinistral slip rate of 0.3~0.6mm/a along the Beida Shan Fault, which is consistent with the slip rate of the Taohuala Shan Fault estimated by Yu et al.(2017). Compared with the fault slip rate accommodated in the Hexi Corridor area and regional GPS rates, the southern Alashan block plays a significant role in absorbing deformation in response to the northern Tibetan growth.

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    NEW PROGRESS IN PALEOEARTHQUAKE STUDIES OF THE JIANGSU SEGMENT OF THE ANQIU-JUXIAN FAULT IN THE TANLU FAULT ZONE
    ZHANG Hao, LI Li-mei, JIANG Xin, ZHANG Dong, XU Han-gang
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (4): 880-895.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.04.005
    Abstract860)   HTML19)    PDF(pc) (17177KB)(154)       Save

    Paleoseismology is a discipline that studies prehistoric earthquakes or earthquakes that occurred before instrumental records using geological and geomorphological methods, mainly by trench excavation and Quaternary chronology. It focuses on the time and intensity distribution of large earthquakes, to reveal the recurrence characteristics of large earthquakes and provide basic data for evaluating the probability of future earthquakes. The Tanlu fault zone is the most active fault zone in eastern China. The Jiangsu section of the Tanlu fault zone is mainly composed of five branch faults, which are strongly active in the Pleistocene. Among them, the Anqiu-Juxian Fault continued to be active until the Holocene, which is the seismogenic fault of the Tancheng 8½ earthquake in 1668. The Xinyi-Sihong section is likely to generate strong earthquakes in the future in the south-central section of the Tanlu fault zone.

    The total length of the Jiangsu section of the Anqiu-Juxian Fault is about 170km, with an overall strike of 5°~15°, extending southwards from the north Maling Mountain to the Chonggang Mountain. The geomorphic features are distributed from north to south by the alternation of the bedrock mountain and the sedimentary basin. The Anqiu-Juxian Fault shows a single exposed fault on one side of the bedrock mountain, extending to the basin into two branches in the east and west, of which the east branch is the active late Pleistocene Fault and the west branch is the Holocene active fault. The Jiangsu section of the Anqiu-Juxian Fault is dominated by dextral strike-slip and has both dip and thrust components.

    Lots of research have been done on the ancient earthquakes of the Anqiu-Juxian Fault. The trenches are mostly located in Maling Mountain, Zhangshan Mountain and Chonggang Mountain, which are in the state of uplift and denudation. The Holocene is very thin, and the dating method is mostly optical luminescence. The identification of ancient earthquake events is less since the Holocene, with the accuracy of ancient earthquake time not high and the ancient earthquake sequence not complete. According to the topographic and geomorphological characteristics of the Jiangsu section of the Anqiu-Juxian Fault, three trenches were excavated along the Anqiu-Juxian Fault, of which two were in exposed areas and one in a buried area. Three trenches completely revealed the Holocene sedimentary strata in the Jiangsu section of the Anqiu-Juxian Fault, in which MLTC2 revealed the early Holocene strata, MLTC1 revealed the middle Holocene strata, and HSTC revealed the late Holocene strata. The determination of the age of earthquake events is one of the most uncertain factors in the study of paleoearthquakes and is the main indicator of the recurrence period of paleoearthquakes. At present, most of the paleoearthquake events studied have occurred since the late Pleistocene, and the accuracy of 14C dating is the highest. A total of 13 14C samples were collected from the trenches. Combined with the paleoearthquake events and time revealed by previous trenches, it is concluded that there have been three paleoearthquake events in the Jiangsu section of the Anqiu-Juxian Fault since the Holocene, with theelapsed time of ~3000aBP, ~6000aBP and ~11000aBP, and the coseismic vertical offset are all nearly 1m.

    The 1668 Tancheng M8½ earthquake showed signs of surface ruptures in the exposed area of the Xinyi section of the Anqiu-Juxian Fault, accompanied by a large amount of sandblasting and water gushing in the buried area. Dense fissures and sand veins are observed in the late Holocene strata overlying the fault, indicating the impact of the 1668 Tancheng earthquake. More representative chronological data are needed as to whether the 1668 Tancheng earthquake ruptured Suqian City.

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    THE LATE QUATERNARY ACTIVITY CHARACTERISTICS AND SLIP RATE OF BATANG FAULT IN SE TIBETAN PLATEAU
    HUANG Wei-liang, ZHANG Jia-le, XIANG Wen, YANG Qian-hao
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (6): 1265-1285.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.06.002
    Abstract104)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (17828KB)(152)       Save

    The southeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau is one of the most intensely deformed regions in the continental crust. A series of active faults with varying lengths and mechanical properties have segmented the lithosphere into multiple active blocks, with the Sichuan-Yunnan block being one of the most tectonically active regions. Its eastern boundary is characterized by secondary fault zones such as the Xianshuihe-Anninghe-Zemuhe, Xiaojiang, and Daliangshan fault zone, forming a narrow and continuous strike-slip deformation zone with a total length exceeding 1 100km. The western boundary of the Sichuan-Yunnan Block is mainly composed of the Jinsha River and the Red River fault zone, with the Jinsha River fault zone consisting of more than 20 roughly parallel secondary faults, forming a complex fault zone with 30~200km width. Despite recent GNSS network observation revealing the current tectonic deformation rates in this region, there is still a lack of research on the deformation characteristics and rates of individual active faults. This limitation makes it difficult in the assessment and understanding of seismic hazards in the area, restricting the scientific understanding of the current deformation mode in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau.

    The Batang Fault, located within the Jinsha River fault zone at the western boundary of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, is a NE-trending main fault that obliquely cuts across the Jinsha River Fault, dividing later into northern and central segments. Presently, the Batang Fault is characterized by dominant right-lateral strike-slip motion. The deformation characteristics and rates of this fault since the Late Quaternary are crucial for understanding the spatial distribution of strong earthquakes and deformation patterns in the Sichuan-Yunnan block.

    The Batang Fault has a total length of 115km and is a Holocene right-lateral strike-slip active fault. The fault extends along the margins of bedrock mountains on both sides of the Maqu river and Jinsha River valleys, trending NNE or NWW to SEE, with a steep dip. The fault exhibits linear distribution of topographic features such as slopes, ridges, triangular facets, and fault scarps, essentially controlling the boundaries of bedrock mountains. In view from the geomorphology, the Batang Fault appears continuous and straight without distinct segmentation, except for localized small-scale step-like features. The Batang Fault has preserved abundant Late Quaternary activity evidence in two areas, Huangcaoping village and Batang county. This study utilized unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry to establish sub-meter digital terrain data for Huangcaoping and Batang site, accurately measuring displaced features such as alluvial fans and gullies affected by faulting. In Huangcaoping site, the fault has cut through multiple mountain-front alluvial fans, causing varying degrees of horizontal displacement in features such as gullies and the margin of the alluvial fans. This provided a scale for quantifying fault displacement. In Huangcaoping, five large-angle gullies intersect with the fault, one of which is a large gully developed in the bedrock mountain area. The gully has a deep incision, a narrow valley, and a rapid downstream turn to the right after exiting the mountain. The left bank of the gully preserves two geomorphic surfaces, Qo(older)and Qi(younger)surface, with the fault cutting across both surfaces, forming linear steep terrain. The measured total right-lateral offset of this gully since exiting the bedrock mountain area is(46±9)m. To constrain the activity rate of the Batang Fault at this location, we used cosmogenic nuclide single clast dating to determine the exposure age of the oldest geomorphic surface, Qo, as(12.5±0.5)ka. Considering that the formation of the river predates the Qo geomorphic surface, the age-constrained slip rate of the fault at this location is considered a maximum value, estimated at(3.6±0.8)mm/a. At Batang county, the Batang Fault has preserved clear faulted topography when cutting through the Moqu alluvial fan. The southern edge of the Moqu alluvial fan has been displaced by the fault, providing a well-preserved geomorphic marker for determining the strike-slip displacement of the fault. The Batang Fault, when intersecting the steep edge of the Moqu River alluvial fan, caused an obvious right-lateral offset, determined by comparing the consistent morphology of the steep edge on both sides of the fault. The right-lateral strike-slip displacement along the southern edge of the alluvial fan is measured at (40±5)m. The cosmogenic nuclide depth profile dating was used to determine the age of the faulted alluvial fan. From a vertical profile excavated along a man-made road on the edge of the alluvial fan, four mixed samples of small pebbles were collected from bottom to top. The calculated exposure ages of the debris flow alluvial fan are (15.2+3.2/-5.4)ka (without consideration of erosion)and (16.4+3.9/-5.6)ka (with consideration of erosion). Combining the fault displacement along the southern edge of the alluvial fan and the cosmogenic nuclide depth profile ages, the slip rate of the Batang Fault at this location is estimated to be of(2.6±0.6)mm/a (without erosion)or(2.4±0.8)mm/a (considering erosion). We believe that the age results with consideration of erosion effects is closer to the true values, thus we take 2.4mm/a as the activity rate of the Batang Fault at this location. The two slip rate values of the Batang Fault obtained in the Huangcaoping and Batang county sites are similar, indicating a right-lateral strike-slip rate of 2~4mm/a since the Late Quaternary. This rate accounts for 50%~80% of the present GPS observation shear deformation across the western boundary of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, indicating that the Batang Fault is a major deformation absorption zone in the Jinsha River fault zone. However, this rate is lower than the predicted~10mm/a using block models. The discrepancy may be due to the different understanding of the deformation mode at the western boundary of the Sichuan-Yunnan Block. In the block model, block sliding mainly relies on the primary boundary fault to regulate, but the long-term and lower geological activity rate of the Batang Fault obtained in this study does not match the assumption of a higher activity rate for the boundary fault in this model. The continuous and diffuse deformation characteristics of crustal deformation in the southeastern margin of the Tibet plateau may corroborate the lower activity rate of the Batang Fault obtained in this study.

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    RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF QUARTZ ESR DATING METHOD ON EARLY PLEISTOCENE SEDIMENT: A CASE STUDY OF JINGYUAN SECTION
    WEI Chuan-yi, YIN Gong-ming, WANG Xu-long, WANG Duo, JI Hao, LIU Chun-ru, LI Xin-xiu
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (5): 1041-1056.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.05.001
    Abstract174)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (4654KB)(147)       Save

    As the most recent period of the geological record, the Quaternary climate change, tectonics and river drainage evolution have been well recorded by Quaternary sediment. Establishing the timing of these geological changes, and of their effects on the earth's environment, is a key element in Quaternary research. Because of dating range limit of quartz OSL dating and 14C dating, lacking of tephra for K-Ar dating, and strict restrictions for 26Al/10Be cosmogenic nuclide dating, the samples older than 200ka were critical but difficult in Quaternary dating, while electron spin resonance(ESR)dating method could provide absolute age for late Pliocene and Pleistocene samples. Previous studies show that quartz Al center and Ti-Li center are the most suitable signals for sediment ESR dating, and have been successfully applied into middle-late Pleistocene sediment dating. However, the application of those two centers ESR chronology into early Pleistocene or pre-Quaternary sediment remains confusion.

    In this study, early Pleistocene Jingyuan gravel layer sediment deposited at Yellow river were collected for ESR dating. The results of comprehensive comparative analysis of high resolution magneto-stratigraphy and deep-sea oxygen isotope curve of loess-paleosol sequences and high credible 26Al/10Be cosmogenic nuclide dating age make the Jingyuan gravel layer as the ideal material to evaluate the dating range, especially lower dating range, of the quartz Ti-Li center and Al center, respectively. The results show that:

    (1)The quartz Ti-Li center and Al center signal intensity of Jingyuan gravel layer was not saturated within 11 000Gy and 130 00Gy additional gamma ray dose, respectively; combined with the long thermal lifetimes of the quartz Ti-Li center(8×106a)and Al center(7.4×109a), guarantee the ESR dating range for million years.

    (2)The single saturation exponential function and “EXP+LIN” functions could provide more accuracy fitting result of equivalent dose of quartz Ti-Li center and Al center, respectively, and the fitting goodness is greater than 0.98.

    (3)The average ESR dating results of quartz Ti-Li center and Al center of Jingyuan gravel layer is~(1.67±0.15)Ma and~(1.65±0.69)Ma, respectively, which is consistent with the previously well-known age within the error range.

    To better understand the lower dating limit of the quartz ESR dating method, based on the previous analysis of the ESR signal thermal stabilities, we discuss the maximum saturation of the ESR signals and ESR signals' sensitivity. Combined with the fitting goodness evaluation of various fitting functions, we propose that the quartz Ti-Li center and Al center ESR dating method could provide reliable chronological constrains on the sand lens of early Pleistocene gravel layer. The results of our study not only provide a solid theorical foundation for the application of quartz ESR dating method for late Pliocene and early Pleistocene fluvial sediments, but also demonstrate a typical practice example of the ESR method on dating late Cenozoic sediments.

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    THE SURFACE RUPTURE CHARACTERISTICS BASED ON THE GF-7 IMAGES INTERPRETATION AND THE FIELD INVESTIGA-TION OF THE 2022 MENYUAN MS6.9 EARTHQUAKE
    WANG Liao, XIE Hong, YUAN Dao-yang, LI Zhi-min, XUE Shan-yu, SU Rui-huan, WEN Ya-meng, SU Qi
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 401-421.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.006
    Abstract158)   HTML13)    PDF(pc) (22292KB)(146)       Save

    On January 8th, 2022, an MS6.9 earthquake occurred around Menyuan County(37.77°N, 101.26°E), Qinghai Province. The epicenter is located in the northeastern part of the Tibetan plateau, where the western section of the Lenglongling Fault meets the eastern section of the Tolaishan Fault. In order to know the spatial distribution of coseismic surface rupture zone as soon as possible, and determine the seismogenic structure, the post-earthquake GF-7 remote sensing images of the Menyuan MS6.9 earthquake were analyzed. Moreover, combining the interpretation of the GF-7 images and the field investigation, the distribution of the co-seismic surface rupture was determined and the typical coseismic landforms, and the image recognition features of various co-seismic landforms are interpreted and summarized. The results show that the earthquake produced two major surface rupture zones with a left-stepped oblique spatial arrangement. The main northern branch rupture distributes on the west side of the Lenglongling Fault, with a length of about 22km and a strike of 100°N~120°E, the secondary rupture of the southern branch distributes along the eastern section of the Tuolaishan Fault, with a length of about 4km and a strike of N90°E. The total length of the two rupture zones is about 26km.

    Along the rupture zones, a series of typical left-lateral strike-slip coseismic landforms were formed, such as tensional fractures, tensional-shear fractures, pressure ridges, pressure bulges, left-lateral strike-slip gullies, as well as left-lateral strike-slip roadbeds, etc. We divided the surface rupture into six segments to conduct detailed observation and analysis, that is, the west of Daohe segment, Liuhuanggou segment, Honggou segment, Yongan River segment and Yikeshugou segment, from west to east among the main rupture zone of the north branch, as well as the secondary rupture zone of the south branch. In general, each co-seismic landform has its distinctive image characteristics, and we obtained them from the interpretation and summarization of the GF-7 images. The shear fractures located at the two ends of the main rupture and in the areas where the surface rupture is weak are zigzaggy on the remote sensing images, while the shear fractures located in the areas where the surface rupture is intense are shown as dark, wide and continuously smooth stripes; thrust scarps are represented on remote sensing images as shaded, narrow and slightly curved strips; the pressure ridges and pressure bulges exhibit black elliptical feature on the images that are parallel or at a smaller angle to the main rupture; tensional-shear fractures are displayed as black strips arranged in en echelon with a 30°~45° intersection angle with the main shear rupture, and their linear features are not as straight as those of shear ruptures yet are still distinct; the coseismic scarps formed on the ice are manifested in the images as traction bend and texture change. Based on the GF-7 images, the cumulative dislocations of typical sinistral landforms along the co-seismic surface rupture on Lenglongling Fault are interpreted and futher compared with the previous study. This is the first time of application of GF-7 to the strong earthquake geohazards monitoring since it was officially launched in August 2020. From this study, it can be seen that with its high resolution, GF-7 can be used to accurately identify faulted features. Not only it could provide information of the geometric roughness, complexity and segmentation of the fracture, but also can record clear dislocations of the landforms. The study of the GF-7 images in the 2022 Menyuan earthquake has showed that the GF-7 images can provide strong data support for the geology and geological hazard studies.

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    INTERSEISMIC SLIP RATES AND SHALLOW CREEP ALONG THE NORTHWESTERN SEGMENT OF THE XIANSHUIHE FAULT FROM INSAR DATA
    CHEN Yi, ZHAO Bin, XIONG Wei, WANG Wei, YU Peng-fei, YU Jian-sheng, WANG Dong-zhen, CHEN Wei, QIAO Xue-jun
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (5): 1074-1091.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.05.003
    Abstract146)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (10431KB)(141)       Save

    Located in the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, the Xianshuihe fault zone is one of the most active left-lateral strike-slip faults in Chinese mainland. As the southern boundary of the Bayanhar block, the Xianshuihe Fault accommodates the southeastward transport of material toward southeastern Asia. Earthquakes have occurred frequently along this fault, especially in the northwestern segment. More than 20 earthquakes with MW>6.0 have ruptured since 1700. The most recent MW>7 earthquake was the Luhuo earthquake in 1973, and the most recent MW>6 earthquake was the MW6.6 Luding earthquake in 2022. As one of the most active faults in mainland China, the present slip pattern of the Xianshuihe Fault, especially the shallow creep characteristics along its northwestern segment, has attracted much attention.

    The primary goal of determining slip rates of active faults using geodetic data is to quantify the seismic potential of the faults. Illuminating the long-term slip rate and shallow creep distribution of faults is the basis for calculating the seismic moment rate and evaluating the seismic potential. Due to the backwardness of early measurement methods, the seismic deformation along the Xianshuihe Fault was previously based on geologic, cross-fault short baseline and leveling surveys. With the application of GPS in tectonic geodesy, more and more GPS stations are installed near active faults, which provide accurate constraints on the long-term slip rates of the fault. Subsequently, the appearance of InSAR technology has brought a beneficial supplement to GPS, providing high spatial resolution surface velocity maps, which have been widely used to measure deep and shallow creep along active faults. It is the key to accurately characterize the fault slip behavior and evaluate the seismic potential.

    In this study, 119 Sentinel-1 satellite descent data from December 2014 to December 2021 were processed to obtain the average line-of-sight(LOS)velocity field of the northwestern segment of the Xianshuihe Fault based on the small baseline InSAR method. Then the elastic screw dislocation model was used to fit the fault normal InSAR LOS velocity profiles to estimate the long-term slip rates and shallow creep rates. Combined with the viscoelastic earthquake cycle model, the effects of the earthquake recurrence period, and rheology of the lower crust and upper mantle on slip rate estimation in Luhuo segment are analyzed. The main results are as follows:

    (1)The average InSAR LOS velocity field is in the northwestern segment of the Xianshuihe Fault during 2014—2021 has been obtained with a large range and high spatial resolution. The velocity field results show an obvious velocity gradient across the surface trace of the Xianshuihe Fault, which is consistent with the left-lateral strike-slip characteristics of the Xianshuihe Fault.

    (2)To investigate the slip rate variation along the northwestern segment of the Xianshuihe Fault, we used the two-dimensional elastic screw dislocation model to fit the 14 fault-normal velocity profiles selected along the northwestern segment of the Xianshuihe Fault and estimated the long-term slip rates and shallow creep rates using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo(MCMC)method. The results show that the overall slip rates of the NW segment of the Xianshuihe Fault range from 7.2mm/a to 11.0mm/a, and gradually decrease from west to east. The shallow creep rate ranges from 0.3mm/a to 3.1mm/a. The high creep rate appears mainly at Xialatuo and the segment from Daowu to Songlinkou. The shallow creep rates in other places are close to zero, implying that the fault is completely locked.

    (3)According to historical earthquake records, the recurrence interval of the Luhuo segment is set to be 150 years, 200 years, and 400 years, and the viscosity of the lower crust and upper mantle is set to be 5.0×1018Pa·s, 1.0×1019Pa·s, and 5.0×1019Pa·s. The slip rate of the Luhuo segment is estimated to be (7.91±0.3)~(9.85±0.4)mm/a using the MCMC method, which is slightly lower than the (10.14±0.5)mm/a obtained by the pure elastic model. In addition, when the earthquake recurrence interval is 150 years and the viscosity of the lower crust and upper mantle is 5.0×1019Pa·s, we simulate the fault-normal velocity at 5 years, 20 years, 75 years, and 125 years after the 1973 Luhuo earthquake, and find that in any period of the seismic cycle, the estimation of fault slip rate will be biased to some extent if the viscoelastic contribution of the lower crust and upper mantle is ignored.

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    MORPHOLOGIC DATING OF SCARP MORPHOLOGY BASED ON DIFFUSION EQUATION: A REVIEW
    XU Jian-hong, CHEN Jie, WEI Zhan-yu, LI Tao
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (4): 811-832.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.04.001
    Abstract214)   HTML26)    PDF(pc) (5260KB)(139)       Save

    A scarp is a common step-like landform in nature, which consists of a gently sloping plane connected to the upper and lower geomorphic surfaces of differing elevations. Common scarps include fault scarps, terrace scarps, lake shoreline scarps, shoreline scarps, volcanic ash cinder cones, etc. Scarps are often used as strain markers because of their linear characteristics and are favored in the study of active tectonics. However, it is difficult to directly constrain their ages. Instead, they are usually constrained by the ages of the upper and lower geomorphic surfaces. The scarp developed in loose deposits is controlled by a long process of low-energy degradation after a short collapse. This process can be modeled by the diffusion equation because the process can be considered as a slope process under the transport-limited condition. Under this condition, the slope can provide enough loose material for transport, that is, the material transport capacity is less than the material supply capacity. If process assumptions are sufficiently valid and rate constraints can be calibrated independently, the true age of scarps can be obtained. This method is called morphologic dating. This method has been included in many textbooks published overseas, but there have very little research on this method in China. Both linear and nonlinear models have been developed to describe scarp degradation. Linear diffusion models assume that the diffusion coefficient is a constant, whereas nonlinear transport models generally define the diffusion coefficient as a nonlinear function related to the topographic gradient. Compared to the linear transport models, nonlinear transport models can better explain the phenomenon of rapidly increasing deposition flux as the gradient approaches a critical value. In this paper, we review the study history of scarp degradation analysis and the concept model of scarp degradation. We focus on the establishment of the nonlinear model, the role of the different parameters in profile evolution, determining the best-fit age using a full-scarp nonlinear modeling procedure, and so on. Furthermore, we introduce the model of the nonlinear age chart, including the effect of far-field slope on morphologic dating of scarp-like landforms and two examples of the application of the chart, which shows that this method can correctly evaluate the ages of single-event scarps. Finally, we discuss the extension of the concept and method of the scarp degradation model, the applicability of the model, and repeated fault scarp morphological analysis. For nonlinear diffusion models, in addition to n equal to 2, two parameters (critical gradient (Sc) and diffusion constant (k)) need to be constrained. The critical gradient can be obtained from the young scarps in the study area, which roughly represents the initial state of scarp evolution, typically 0.6 to 0.7(30° to 35°). The diffusion constant needs to be characterized by a known age scarp. The slopes of the upper and lower geomorphic surfaces have an obvious influence on the morphology of a degraded scarp. These discussions indicate that both linear and nonlinear models can be used for the degradation analysis of single-event scarps, but a nonlinear diffusion model is recommended for young single-event scarps. The constant slip rate nonlinear model can be used to simulate the evolution history of<10ka high-slip rate active fault scarp. The multiple-event scarp model requires careful evaluation of the fault location and the amount of displacement per event. There are several assumptions in the scarp topography diffusion modeling, which require practice to verify its reliability. With advances in surveying technology, it is now possible to rapidly obtain high-resolution terrain data over broad areas from which numerous topographic profiles can be efficiently extracted. This provides a broad application prospect for scarp degradation analysis and morphologic dating.

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    STATUS OF RESEARCH AND OBSERVATION ON UNDERGROUND FLUID HYDROGEN IN SEISMIC FAULT ZONES IN CHINA
    JIANG Yu-han, WANG Zi-si, LIU Jia-qi, LIANG Hui, ZHOU Qi-chao, GAO Xiao-qi
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (3): 622-637.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.03.002
    Abstract175)   HTML23)    PDF(pc) (2106KB)(137)       Save

    Large-scale observation network has been set up in China, including the observations of groundwater dynamics, geothermal water, and geochemical parameters, and long-term observation data has been obtained for underground fluids. Hydrogen observation is considered to be one of the methods that are most likely to make a breakthrough in the aspect of earthquake precursor monitoring and prediction, thus, plays an important role in earthquake monitoring and forecast in China. Many scholars have carried out research on the relationship about hydrogen and earthquake precursors, and proved that abnormal hydrogen concentrations are related to and have certain correlations earthquake activities. The main objects of hydrogen observation in China include the escaping gas from fault soil and the escaping gas from deep wells and hot springs near the fault. Different analytical methods are used for different types of hydrogen, and the main methods include gas chromatograph analysis and digital high-precision hydrogen analyzer analysis. Through years of observation practice, a large number of typical examples have been obtained in China. The relationship between the abnormal hydrogen concentration and the earthquake has a correspondence. The main manifestation is that the hydrogen concentration increases several times or even tens or hundreds of times in a few months or a few days before the earthquake. It is mainly divided into two cases: First, it rises rapidly to several times in a short time before the earthquake. The concentration reaches about hundreds of times the background value in more than ten to a few days immediately before the earthquake, and then the earthquake occurs. The concentration quickly declines and restores the background value after the earthquake. Second, the hydrogen concentration continues to increase in fluctuation, and decreases after reaching the maximum value, then, the earthquake occurs after recovery. This kind of anomaly is short in time, mostly, they are imminent or medium and short-term abnormalities. Therefore, the hydrogen response to the earthquake precursor is an important short-imminent earthquake prediction indicator, and can be used as an important approach to explore the short-impending earthquake prediction.
    The hydrogen in the crust mainly comes from biochemical and chemical actions. The hydrogen on the surface layer of the crust is mainly produced by microbial decomposition of organic matter and mineral salts. It is regularly symbiotic with gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. The hydrogen in the crustal fault belts, especially in the active fault zones, also comes from the failure and deformation of rock. The formation mechanism of hydrogen in the crust can be summarized into 3 categories: 1)Under normal circumstances, the hydrogen content is very low, and most of them exist in the pores of the rock and soil layer in a free state, or are adsorbed on the surface of the rock. When the external conditions remain unchanged, the gas is in a balanced state; when the environment changes, especially the underground stress changes, the cracks develop continuously under the action of tectonic stress, resulting in interconnecting each other, and subsequently, the deep hydrogen also changes and emits to the ground surface, including the imminent rupture stage in the earthquake preparation and rock oscillation; 2)The chemical reactions occur between the crushed rock's fine particles and water, generating hydrogen; 3)The temperature gradient causes the hydrogen attached in the crack to escape.
    In short, hydrogen is a better method for studying earthquake reflecting ability among the underground fluid observation methods. Representative earthquake cases are obtained from observations of both dissolved hydrogen in the water or soil hydrogen. This observation item plays an important role and has practical significance in the geochemical observation means. In the observation of earthquake underground fluids, hydrogen observations can provide data support for future earthquake risk zoning and earthquake tendency tracking and analysis.

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    NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INFLUENCING FACTORS OF SURFACE RUPTURE IN OVERLYING SOIL LAYER OF THRUST FAULT
    GUO Ting-ting, XU Xi-wei, YUAN Ren-mao, YANG Hong-zhi
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (5): 1200-1218.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.05.010
    Abstract138)   HTML19)    PDF(pc) (10497KB)(135)       Save

    When the strong earthquakes occur, the deformation and rupture of overlying soil caused by the dislocation of focal faults is one of the important reason for the destruction of ground structures. In the process of a strong earthquake or large earthquake, the deformation reaction and failure of the overlying soil of underground concealed faults are very complicated. To study and analyze the characteristics and influencing factors of surface deformation and fracture of the overlying soil layer, in this paper, the influences of fault dip Angle, fault displacement, and overlying soil thickness on surface deformation and fracture of overlying soil are analyzed by the finite element numerical simulation method comprehensively. The results show that: 1)With the increase of fault vertical dislocation of 1m to 4m, the surface equivalent strain gradually increases, the surface rupture is more likely to occur, and the surface rupture width also wider. With the increase of the thickness of the overlying soil layer from 20m to 60m, and the increase of the fault inclination from 30°, 45°, 70° to nearly 90°, the surface equivalent strain is gradually smaller, the surface rupture is more likely to occur, and the surface fracture width becomes smaller, which means that the amount of dislocation required for the same rupture state needs to increase. 2)When the vertical dislocation of the fault is about 3.3%for the thickness of the overlying soil, the surface rupture occurs only as the fault dip angle is 30°, no surface rupture occurs as the dip angle is 45° and 70°. When the vertical dislocation of the fault is about 5% of the thickness of the overlying soil, the surface rupture occurs only as the fault dip angle is 30° and 45°, no surface rupture occurs as the dip angle is 70° and approaching 90°. When the vertical dislocation of the fault is about 6.6% of the thickness of the overlying soil, the surface rupture occurs as the fault dip angle is 30°、 45° and 70°, and surface rupture is expected to occur as the dip angle is approaching 90°. When the vertical dislocation of the fault is about 10% of the thickness of the overlying soil, the surface rupture occurs as the fault dip angle is 30°, 45°, 60°and approaching 90°. 3)When the amount of vertical dislocation and the thickness of the overlying soil are certain, the ratio of surface rupture width between the hanging wall and footwall which is less affected by fault dip ranges from 3︰1 to 3︰2~1︰1 with the increase of fault dip Angle from 30°, 45° to 70°. When the fault inclination Angle is 30°, with a decrease of vertical dislocation of 4m to 1m, or the increase of overlying soil layer thickness of 20m to 60m, the ratio of surface rupture width between hanging wall and footwall is slightly larger from about 3︰1. When the fault inclination Angle is 45°, with the decrease of vertical dislocation of 4m to 1m, or the increase of overlying soil layer thickness of 20m to 60m, the ratio of surface rupture width between hanging wall and footwall is slightly larger from about 2︰1. When the fault inclination Angle is 75°, with the decrease of vertical dislocation of 4m to 1m, or the increase of overlying soil layer thickness of 20m to 60m, the ratio of surface rupture width between hanging wall and footwall is slightly larger from about 3︰2~1︰1. Under the above fault dip conditions, the ratio of surface rupture width between hanging wall and footwall is less affected by the amount of vertical dislocation and the thickness of overlying soil. As the inclination is approaching 90°, the ratio of surface rupture width between the hanging wall and footwall is about 1︰1, which is not affected by the vertical dislocation and the thickness of the overlying soil layer. 4)The deformation and fracture of the overlying soil layer first began with the soil fracture at the interface of the fault bedrock and soil. With the increase in the amount of dislocation, a fracture point appeared on the surface when the fault dip Angle was 30°, 45°, and 70°. However, when the dip Angle of the fault was close to 90°, there were two initial rupture points on the surface. With the increase of vertical dislocation or the decrease of the overlying soil layer thickness, the overlying soil layer through fracture is finally formed.

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    APPLICATION OF SMALL UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE(sUAV)IN THE SELECTION OF SUITABLE SITES IN PALEO-SEISMIC STUDY OF BEDROCK FAULT SURFACES
    ZOU Jun-jie, HE Hong-lin, ZHOU Yong-sheng, WEI Zhan-yu, SHI Feng, GENG Shuang, SU Peng, SUN Wen
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (4): 833-846.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.04.002
    Abstract153)   HTML21)    PDF(pc) (6000KB)(133)       Save

    Bedrock normal fault scarps, as classical topographic features and geomorphological markers along mountain range fronts, form in consolidated bedrock due to faulting in extensional settings. They generally preserve more complete records of paleo-earthquakes than fault scarps in unconsolidated sediments. With the development of technologies such as fault surface morphology measurement and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating, bedrock fault planes have become a nice object for paleo-earthquake study in bedrock areas. The reconstruction of paleo-seismic history from a bedrock fault scarp in terms of the times, co-seismic slips and ages by a combination of quantitative morphological analysis, TCNs dating and other physical/chemical index has been proven feasible by several previous studies.

    However, this success heavily relies on a suitable site selection along the bedrock fault scarp because erosional processes can exhume the bedrock fault surface, and the sedimentary processes can bury the bedrock fault surface. Namely, non-tectonic factors such as gully erosion, sediment burial, and anthropogenic activity make bedrock fault planes difficult to record and preserve paleo-seismic information.

    Therefore, to successfully extract paleo-seismic information from the bedrock area, it is necessary to select suitable study points along the bedrock fault scarp in advance. Traditional survey and mapping methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, and it is difficult to understand bedrock fault scarps. The resolution of satellite images cannot obtain the fine structure of bedrock fault scarps. Small unmanned aerial vehicle(sUAV), combined with Structure-from-Motion(SfM)photogrammetry has emerged over the last decade. It is used as an established workflow in acquiring topographic data by filling the spatial gap between traditional ground-based surveys and satellite remote sensing images. As a low-altitude photogrammetry technology, it can quickly obtain high-precision three-dimensional surface structures of bedrock fault scarps.

    In this paper, taking the Majiayao bedrock fault scarp at the northern foot of Liulengshan in Shanxi Rift as an example, the high-precision and three-dimensional topographic data of the bedrock fault was obtained by using sUAV combined with SfM photogrammetry technology. The high-resolution and high-precision images of tectonic landforms can be obtained conveniently and efficiently by sUAV survey. The sUAV-obtained photos can be further processed by the SfM photogrammetry for generating a digital 3D structure of the bedrock fault scarp with true or shaded color.

    The non-tectonic factors such as rock collapse, sediment burial, and gully erosion along the bedrock fault scarp are identified by interpreting the 3D model of the bedrock fault scarp. The profile shape characteristics of the erosion, burial and tectonic fault scarps are summarized through fine geomorphological interpretation and fault profile analysis. For the erosion profile, the hanging wall slope is down-concave, showing that the fault surface below the ground surface has been partially exposed. For the bury profile, the hanging wall slope shows an obvious concave-up shape, indicating that the lower part of the bedrock fault surface has been partially buried by the colluvium. For the tectonic profile, the hanging wall slope shows a smooth and stable slope, showing the exhumation of bedrock fault scarp is controlled purely by tectonics. Finally, the study sites suitable for paleo-earthquake study on bedrock fault surfaces were selected, showing the important role of sUAV aerial survey technology in the selection of paleo-earthquake study sites in bedrock areas.

    This study illustrates that based on the high-precision three-dimensional surface structure of the bedrock fault plane from sUAV aerial survey, the existence of non-tectonic factors such as gully erosion, sedimentary burial and bedrock collapse can be clearly identified. These non-tectonic sites can be excluded when selecting suitable sites for paleo-earthquake study indoors. The shape analysis of bedrock fault scarp is also helpful to determine whether the bedrock fault surface is modified by surface process and suitable for paleo-seismic study. The sUAV aerial survey can play an important role in paleoseismic research in the bedrock area, which can accurately select the study points suitable for further paleo-seismic work in the bedrock area.

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    THE ANALYSIS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATIC EXTRACTING METHOD FOR ACTIVE THRUST FAULTS IN THE NORTH TIANSHAN MOUNTAINS BASED ON ARCGIS SOFTWARE PLATFORM
    ZHANG Ling, MIAO Shu-qing, YANG Xiao-ping
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 422-434.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.007
    Abstract180)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (7262KB)(132)       Save

    Digital topographic analysis, an important means in the research of active tectonics and tectonic geomorphology, has increasingly become one of the principal tools in the identification of active tectonic features and understanding of the development of the earth’s surface process. Indoor interpretation of surface fault trace plays a key role in the digital topographic analysis as it can provide the foundation for setting priorities and defining strategies in the subsequent field investigation. At present, the extraction of fault traces is often realized by assisting the traditional visual interpretation through the image enhancement method. The relevant subjective assessments lead to the amount of work and usually cause different results due to the differences in the interpretation experience of actual operators. At the same time, the field of quantitative research on geomorphic parameters is evolving very rapidly with the advances in the popularity of high-resolution digital topographic data. Therefore, intelligent and automatic extraction of surface fault traces has gradually become a promising research direction. The methods based on machine learning often rely heavily on the good programming foundation of the operator, which is a visible technical barrier. We present a semi-automated method using an ArcGIS toolbox with a set of tools to extract surface fault traces based on geomorphic constraints. The Hutubi and Dushanzi faults are two typical thrust faults located on the northern piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains and are chosen as examples. Excellent exposure of the surface fault traces in these two regions permits detailed mapping of fault traces and deriving shape factors of faults with high-resolution DEMs(digital elevation models). Additionally, they are two of the most-studied thrust faults in this area. Large-scale geological and geomorphological mappings of them and numerous achievements have been published. This creates possibilities for us to conduct comparison analysis on different major methods. Based on typical morphology characteristics of fault scarps, appropriate geomorphic parameters are selected. In practice, reverse fault scarps are distinctly defined into forward and backward ones according to whether their dip is the same as that of the neighboring geomorphic surfaces. Based on two sets of geomorphic constraints,two approaches are then illustrated, including slope calculation, gully extraction, data density analysis and process modeling. Through a detailed comparison of the final extraction results and previous visual interpretations of remote sensing data and field geomorphic investigations, the validity of the method proposed in this study is proven. This method provides a set of tools with user-friendly interfaces to realize step-by-step interpretation and emphasizes the importance of field-based geomorphic constraints at the same time. Moreover, many subtle fault traces which have not been recognized before are simultaneously revealed in the Dushanzi research area. The high-resolution DEMs guarantee the realization of picking out finer bits of fault information. Compared to traditional ways of working, the method has the advantage of automatically delineating reverse fault traces on the earth’s surface. This advantage can significantly reduce the efforts to manually digitize geomorphic features and improve efficiency. But many basic manual adjustment options for recognizing target characteristics also need to be set in extraction, because the distinguishing criterion of fault scarp and surrounding geomorphic landforms vary among different areas. In different specific circumstances, users can manually adjust relevant parameters for the extraction during the modeling process. Generally speaking, the more detailed constraints, the more confidence in the final delineation of fault traces. Subjective judgments are therefore particularly critical for conducting extraction under complex backgrounds. But improving the degree of automation of the whole process is still an important study direction. Future work is thus recommended to employ machine learning and explore appropriate evaluation methods to search for the optimal solution of intermediate parameters.

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    RELOCATION OF THE 2022 MS6.0 MAERKANG EARTHQUAKE SWARM IN SICHUAN PROVINCE AND ITS SEISMIC FAULT ANALYSIS
    XU Ying-cai, GUO Xiang-yun
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (4): 1006-1024.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.04.012
    Abstract175)   HTML19)    PDF(pc) (13832KB)(131)       Save

    The 2022 MS6.0 Maerkang earthquake swarm in Sichuan Province is the first rare strong swarm activity with high frequency, concentrated spatial and temporal distribution, strong explosive and strong magnitude in Maerkang area in the eastern segment of Bayan Har block in China seismic network records. It is also another significantly strong earthquake event in Bayan Har block after the MS7.4 Maduo earthquake on May 22, 2021. The MS6.0 Maerkang earthquake on June 10, 2022 not only broke the 33-year record without MS≥6.0 earthquakes within 100km of the epicenter, but also broke the historical record without MS≥6.0 earthquakes within 50km of the epicenter. The earthquake swarm is mainly located in the nearly “T” shaped conjugate fault structure area composed of the NW strike Maerkang fault and NE strike Longriba fault in the Bayan Har block. This area is a relatively rare region for moderate and strong earthquakes in the history. Therefore, it is of great significance to analyze and discuss the possible seismogenic faults of the Maerkang strong earthquake sequence for the study of seismogenic structures and the risk of strong earthquakes in the weak seismic region of Bayan Har block.

    The earthquake swarm was relocated by double-difference method, and focal mechanisms and centriod depths of MS≥3.6 earthquakes were calculated by using gCAP inversion method. Then the relationship between the stress system in the Malkang area and these earthquake focal mechanisms was analyzed, and fault plane was fitted by using relocation results. Maerkang earthquake swarm is mainly distributed along NW direction, and the initial rupture depth is 9.8km on average. Depth profiles show that earthquakes are mainly concentrated at depth between 0km to 15km. The most earthquakes of early-stage occurred in 48 hours. The mid-stage and late-stage earthquakes are located less than 15km in depth and move to the northwest of the epicenters. Initial rupture depth of the largest MS6.0 earthquake is 12.5km, which is almost at the bottom of the dense area. The focal mechanism of MS6.0 earthquake is 150° in strike, 79° in dip, and 7° in rake on nodal plane Ⅰ, and 59° in strike, 83° in dip, and 169° in rake on nodal plane Ⅱ, with the centroid depth of 9km. Other focal mechanisms of MS≥3.6 earthquake are strike-slip types. Dips of nodal plane of focal mechanism range from 71° to 86°, and there exist different dip directions for one strike of every nodal plane. All azimuths of P axis are in NWW direction, and the plunges are nearly horizontal. The focal mechanisms of MS≥3.6 earthquakes show that the tectonic environment is very favorable for NE or NW strike faults to generate the strike-slip movement. Centriod depths range from 5 to 9km, which are lower than the average depth of 9.8km of relocation, indicating that these earthquakes mainly ruptured from deep to shallow. The relative shear stress of the NW nodal plane are significantly greater than that of the NE nodal plane, and the normal stress of the NW nodal plane was smaller than that of the NE nodal plane, indicating more possibility of strike-slip dislocation on the NW nodal plane. The fault plane fitting results reveal that there are obviously two nearly parallel and nearly NW strike earthquake belts in the epicenter area. Fitted fault plane parameters of the belt in the north branch show the strike 333°, the dip 88°, the slide -22°, and the belt in the south branch show the strike 331°, dip 88°, and slide -23°. It is indicated that the fault properties of these two earthquake belts are basically the same, revealing that most of earthquake activities of the swarm may be controlled by at least two parallel structures near the Maerkang fault with the NW strike, dip 88° and left-lateral strike-slip. Combined with the existing regional geological structure, it is inferred that the Maerkang earthquake swarm may be induced by the NW and NE strike conjugate faults, and the NW strike faults control most of the earthquake activities.

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    DISCUSSION ON SEISMOGENIC STRUCTURE OF THE JUNE 2022 MS6.1 EARTHQUAKE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE APRIL 2013 MS7.0 EARTHQUAKE IN LUSHAN, SICHUAN PROVINCE
    CHEN Han-lin, WANG Qin-cai, ZHANG Jin-chuan, LIU Rui-feng
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (5): 1233-1246.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.05.012
    Abstract150)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (7565KB)(127)       Save

    In this paper, we relocated earthquakes occurred from April 2013 to July 2022 in Lushan seismic zone, inversed focal mechanism solution of the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake on June 1, 2022 and discussed the seismogenic structure of the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake and its relationship with the MS7.0 earthquake in April 2013.

    The results of the focal mechanism solution show that the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake in 2022 is a thrust earthquake. The strike, dip and azimuth of nodal plane Ⅰ are 228°, 46° and 104° and for nodal plane Ⅱ are 28°, 46° and 76° respectively. The results of earthquake relocation show that the focal depth of the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake sequence is shallow in the north and deep in the south, the fault length is about 10km. The focal depth is mainly concentrated between 10km to 19km. The fault dip is southeast with an angle of 60°. The initial rupture point of the main shock of the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake is at a depth of 20km, located at the deepest part of the fault. The fault ruptured from deep to shallow. The Lushan MS7.0 earthquake occurred on April 2013 strikes northeast and dips northwestward, but there exists a reverse fault in the aftershock sequence that has the same direction of strike but the opposite direction of dip. This reverse fault is consistent with the strike and dip of the MS6.1 earthquake occurred in June 2022. It appears as two parallel faults in the profile. In addition to the reverse fault on the west side, the embryonic of another reverse fault seems to appear on the east side of the middle of earthquake sequence. These faults are about 10km away from the surface. The distribution of earthquakes in two northwest-oriented depth profiles shows that the dip angles of the main shock and the reverse fault of the MS7.0 earthquake is different at different locations, and these faults are not simple straight planar sections. From one year after occurrence of the MS7.0 earthquake to occurrence of the MS6.1 earthquake, the seismic activity on the main fault decreased but the seismic activity on the reverse fault on the west side of the MS7.0 earthquake sequence was more active during this period, most of the seismic activity occurred near the reverse fault that is parallel to the MS6.1 earthquake fault.

    By analyzing the seismogenic structure and seismic activity characteristics of the Lushan seismic zone, we concluded the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake on June 1, 2022 is caused by a blind thrust fault with strike towards northeast and dip towards southeast, located 10km away from the surface. It has the opposite directions of strike and dip of the Longmenshan Fault. The epicenters of the Lushan MS7.0 earthquake in April 2013 and the MS6.1 earthquake in June 2022 are located near the surface exposure traces of the Shuangshi-Dachuan Fault and the Xiaoguanzi Fault, respectively. However, according to the analysis of the relocation aftershock depth in profile, the aftershock extension to the surface does not coincide with the surface exposure positions of the Shuangshi-Dachuan Fault and the Xiaoguanzi Fault. Therefore, the seismogenic faults of these two earthquakes are not the Shuangshi-Dachuan Fault and the Xiaoguanzi Fault, but two blind reverse faults. The Shuangshi-Dachuan Fault near the MS6.1 earthquake sequence and the main shock fault of the 2013 MS7.0 earthquake are thrust faults dipping northwest, while the Lushan MS6.1 seismogenic fault has opposite direction of dip. The seismogenic fault of the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake and the main thrust fault of the 2013 MS7.0 earthquake, which strikes northeast and dips northwest with the reverse thrust fault of the hanging wall, which strikes northeast and dips southeast, together form a double layer Y-shaped structure. These faults are all blind thrust faults and belong to the Qianshan-Shanqian Fault system in the southern segment of the Longmenshan fault zone. The seismogenic structure in the Lushan seismic zone is a complex fault system composed of one main northeast strike fault with dipping northwest, and three faults dipping southeast.

    From one year after occurrence of the Lushan MS7.0 earthquake to the occurrence of the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake, most of earthquakes in the Lushan seismic zone occurred near a reverse fault which is parallel to the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake seismogenic fault. These earthquakes are located in the area where the coulomb stress change caused by the MS7.0 earthquake acts as loading effect. The Lushan MS6.1 earthquake sequence is mainly distributed in the area where the coulomb stress change plays an unloading role caused by the Lushan MS7.0 earthquake. The research results showed that the coulomb rupture stress caused by the Lushan MS7.0 earthquake on the seismic nodal plane of the MS6.1 earthquake has a restraining effect on the MS6.1 Lushan earthquake.

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    SHALLOW STRUCTURE AND LATE QUATERNARY ACTIVITIES OF BRANCH FAULTS ON THE NORTHERN SIDE OF THE WEINAN TABLELAND IN THE SOUTHEASTERN MARGIN OF THE WEIHE BASIN
    LI Xiao-ni, YANG Chen-yi, LI Gao-yang, FENG Xi-jie, HUANG Yin-di, LI Chen-xia, LI Miao, PEI Gen-di, WANG Wan-he
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 484-499.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.011
    Abstract240)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (8781KB)(123)       Save

    The Weinan Tableland Piedmont fault is an important near-EW-trending Holocene active fault in the southeastern margin of the Weihe Basin, which is closely related to the occurrence of the 1556 Huaxian M8 earthquake. The northern branch of the fault, the northern branch fault in front of the Weinan tableland, passes through the urban area of Weinan. Therefore, finding out the distribution, shallow structure, late Quaternary activity, and seismic capacities of the northern branch fault are of great significance for local earthquake prevention and reduction. The Weihua fault zone, which is composed of F1 and F2 faults, generally strikes near east-west and has a gentle wave shape on the plane. It is a group of active normal faults rising in the south and descending in the north belt one. The Wei-Hua fault zone can be divided into two segments, east and west, and according to its spatial location and geometric distribution, strike change and the difference in geology and landforms on both sides. The eastern section is distributed in front of Huashan Mountain and is called Huashan Piedmont Fault(F2); the western section is distributed in Piedmont of Weinan tableland and is called Weinan Piedmont Fault(F1). There is a large sub-parallel branch fault about 2km to the north of the Piedmont Weinan tableland fault(F1)in the west section, which is called the branch fault on the north side of the Piedmont Weinan tableland. It is also the boundary fault between the Weinan tabland and the Gushi Sag. The Weinan tableland Piedmont Fault(F1)starts from the Weinan Xihekou in the west and extends eastwards through the Fenghe River to Mayukou, Huaxian County, with a length of about 54km; it strikes NWW from the Mayukou to Chishui River, and nearly EW from the Chishui River to the Fenghe River, the west of the Minhe River is NE to NEE, and it is mostly distributed in the form of broken lines or oblique rows. The fault plane dips northward with a dip angle of 60°~70°. The latest activity of the fault is manifested in the latest terraces and alluvial-pluvial fans faulting the Holocene strata, river valleys, and gullies; along the main fault, and a series of stepped normal faults on the north and south sides, a Holocene steep ridge belt with a width of between tens of meters and hundreds of meters, the Holocene strata are vertically faulted by 6~7m, and the vertical slip rate since the Late Pleistocene is about 0.29mm/a. In this paper, the shallow location and structural characteristics of the branch fault on the north side of the front of the Weinan tableland are determined through the combined profile detection of shallow seismic exploration and drilling, and evidence of the new activity of the fault is provided. The shallow seismic exploration results of the four survey lines all reveal the existence of a branch fault on the northern side of the front of the Weinan tableland, as well as the distribution location and cross-sectional structural characteristics of the fault new understanding. The results show that the branch fault on the north side of the Weinan Tableland Piedmont fault is a parallel branch of the main fault in front of the Weinan tabland. The branch fault on the north side of the front of the Weinan tableland is located at the front edge of the second-level terrace of the Weihe River in front of the Weinan tableland. The south end of the road, the mouth of the river, Zhangbaozi, and the outside of the north gate, have a length of at least 22km. The main section of the fault is inclined to the north, with a dip angle of about 70°~80° and a break distance of 6~20m at the upper breaking point, so it is a normal fault. Mainly concealed active faults, which have at least faulted the strata from the Middle Pleistocene to the late Pleistocene in the upward direction. In the four seismic sections, it appears as a normal fault zone with a width of 200~1 800m, including the main and secondary normal faults. Stepped structures and small grabens; secondary faults also fault up at least the Late Pleistocene strata. The combined geological profile of the Chongye Road borehole revealed that the main fault on the north side of the Weinan tableland had been faulted with many landmark strata of the Late Quaternary, and the latest fault occurred after 19ka; the average vertical activity rate since the middle of the Late Pleistocene between 0.07~0.26mm/a. Combined with phenomena such as fault ridges developed along the surface of the fault, it is judged that the fault was active in the Holocene. The branch fault on the north side of the front of the Weinan tableland has had strong activity since the late Quaternary, which means that the fault, as one of the branches of the southeastern boundary zone of the Weihe fault basin-the Weihua fault zone-obviously bears part of the deformation of the belt At the same time, the fault is located in the historically strong earthquake-prone area of the southeastern boundary of the Weihe fault basin, and it cannot be ruled out that it once participated in the rupture of the 1556 Huaxian M8 earthquake. Considering that the branch fault on the north side of the Weinan tableland passes through the urban area of Weinan, its potential seismic hazard and hazard are urgent research topics.

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    SHALLOW STRUCTURE AND QUATERNARY ACTIVITY OF THE TAOCHUAN-HUXIAN FAULT, THE SUB-STRAND OF THE NORTHERN QINLING FAULT ZONE
    YANG Chen-yi, LI Xiao-ni, FENG Xi-jie, HUANG Yin-di, PEI Gen-di
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 464-483.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.010
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    The northern Qinling fault zone is an important active structure in the southern margin of the Weihe Graben Basin, containing many branch faults, of which the near EW striking Taochuan-Huxian Fault is located on the northern side of the fault zone, and the eastern segment is buried in the Weihe Graben Basin. Shallow seismic exploration has been carried out on the middle part of the buried segment of this fault, and the fault inferred to be a late Pleistocene fault with normal strike-slip movement, but the age and rate of the latest activity have not been determined. By conducting new shallow seismic and drilling joint exploration, we further study the shallow structure, the geometric distribution, the latest activity era and the slip rate in the Quaternary in the two segments of the Taochuan-Huxian Fault. The profile of shallow seismic exploration line TB1 reveals that the west segment of the Taochuan-Huxian Fault with NEE trend can extend at least 20km westward from Taochuan Town. The main fault plane dips to N, and the normal-slip movement has faulted the Quaternary bottom boundary and the underlying crystalline basement in the Taibai Basin. The vertical offset of the Quaternary bottom boundary is about 300m, and the remnants of the old thrust structure are still preserved in the fault zone. The shallow seismic reflection lines ZZ1 and YX1-2 reveal the location of the eastern Taochuan-Huxian Fault with the EW striking buried in the Quaternary of the Weihe Graben Basin in Zhouzhi and Huxian. The main fault plane dips to N, and the fault zone is represented by a fault depression zone of about 6km wide and a stepped structure of about 4km wide respectively. The fault up-breakpoints on both profiles offset the bottom boundary of the Holocene in the Weihe Graben Basin. The drilling joint profile exploration applied at Tanjiazhai in Zhouzhi County and Xiashimasi in Meixian County show that the Taochuan-Huxian Fault is distributed in the junction of the southern Weihe Granben Basin and the Qinling Mountains, where the Holocene marker layer S0 has been vertically offset by 4~5m, yielding an average vertical slip rate of 0.4~1.3mm/a. Combined with the results of shallow seismic surveys, it is well demonstrated that the eastern segment of the Taochuan-Huxian Fault(buried in the Weihe Graben Basin)shows Holocene activity, and it is significantly more active than the western segment(the Taibai Basin segment). This may be due to the fact that the eastern segment has been incorporated into the Weihe Graben Basin and has become part of the primary active tectonic zone on the block boundary, while the western segment has not been incorporated. Spatially, the eastern segment of the Taochuan-Huixian Fault is subparallel to the middle-eastern segment of the North Qinling Fault, which is capable of generating strong earthquakes of magnitude 7 or higher. As an important branch of the North Qinling Fault, the Taochuan-Huixian Fault may also be under the same strong seismic background. These two faults probably jointly control the important active boundary of the southern margin of the Weihe Graben Basin. Future research in seismology and geology of these two faults should be strengthened, including their interrelationships at depth, their roles in vertical and horizontal movement distribution, and their seismogenic capacity and potential seismic hazard. In particular, the activity of the Taochuan-Huoxian Fault since the late Quaternary has only recently received attention, and the level of seismo-geological research on the fault is generally low. In this paper, we conducted preliminary studies on the location, shallow tectonic structure, activity segmentation, latest activity and Holocene vertical slip rate of this fault. Future research on the seismogenic structure of the Taochuan-Huoxian Fault needs to be strengthened in order to deepen and improve the understanding of the fault activity and to provide a basis for analyzing the seismic hazard of this fault.

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    PRECISE LOCATION AND SEISMOGENIC STRUCTURE OF THE 2022 LUSHAN MS6.1 EARTHQUAKE
    FU Ying, HU Bin, ZHAO Min, LONG Feng
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (4): 987-1005.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.04.011
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    On June 1, 2022, a MS6.1 earthquake occurred in Lushan, Sichuan Province, western China, which is approximately 10km from the Lushan MS7.0 event on April 20, 2013. To understand if the earthquake has the same seismogenic structure as the Lushan MS7.0, we relocated the event in the Lushan area using the multi-stage locating method based on the seismic phase arrival data of the Sichuan Seismic Network from April 20, 2013, to July 1, 2022. A total of 6992 ML≥1.0 earthquakes were acquired, with a relative locating error of 0.5km and 0.7km in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, with a travel time residual(RMS)of 0.18s. The results show that the MS6.1 event is located at 102.943°E, 30.382°N with an initial-rupture focal depth of 15.6km, lying on the NW side of the 2013 Lushan MS7.0 event. The sub-surface rupture length of the long and short axis is 10 and 8km, measured from the dense aftershock area in NE-SW and NW-SE directions, respectively. The NE-SW profile in the Lushan area shows that the depth of Lushan MS7.0 earthquake in 2013 was about 15km, similar to that of Lushan MS6.1 and MS4.5 on June 1, 2022. The MS6.1 earthquake sequence, located at the NE end of the long axis, shows no evidence to break through the rupture termination point of the Lushan MS7.0 earthquake and enters the Dayi seismic gap, which is bounded by the 2008 Wenchuan MS8.0 and 2013 Lushan MS7.0 aftershock regions. The short-axis profile shows that the MS6.1 earthquake sequence occurred on a new back-thrust fault in the pre-existing seismogenic structure of the 2013 Lushan MS7.0. The new structure dips SE and ruptures in a slight arc protruding into the NW, parallel to the northern segment of the seismogenic structure of the 2013 Lushan MS7.0 earthquake with a horizontal distance of about 5km. The new and old structures connect at the detachment base to the main segment of the 2013 Lushan MS7.0 earthquake.

    We also inverted the focal mechanism of the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake using the CAP(Cut and Paste)method. The result indicates that the centroid depth of the MW5.7 main event is 14km which is very close to the initial-ruptured depth of 15km calculated by the phase arrival times. The best double couple parameters are 221°/40°/105° for nodal plane Ⅰ and 22°/52°/78° for nodal plane Ⅱ. The parameters are in order of the strike, dip, and rake angles. Combined with the realization of the NE-striking, SE-dipping seismogenic structure characteristics determined by the accurate locating of the earthquake sequence, it can be quickly confirmed that the nodal plane Ⅱ is the fault plane.

    Based on the accurate locating results, focal mechanism solutions, and geodynamic background of the focal area, it is inferred that the seismogenic structure of the Lushan MS6.1 earthquake is induced by the thrust dislocation of a NE-SW trending and SE inclining thrust fault in the southern section of Longmenshan fault zone. Finally, we discussed the relationship between MS7.0 and MS6.1 in the Lushan area. The two could be considered a unique sequence: the mainshock and the maximum aftershock, respectively, regarding spatial relationship and tectonic correlation. However, the time interval of these two earthquakes significantly overextends the statistical relationship between the principal earthquake and the maximum aftershock. Furthermore, considering the effects of the Coulomb stress change produced by the earthquakes repeated at the end of the Dayi gap, Lushan earthquake further enhanced the stress level in the Dayi seismic gap located in its northern segment.

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    FAULT GAS OBSERVATION AND SURFACE RUPTURE FEATURE INTERPRETATION OF THE MS7.4 MADOI EARTHQUAKE
    WANG Bo, CUI Feng-zhen, LIU-ZENG Jing, ZHOU Yong-sheng, XU Sheng, SHAO Yan-xiu
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (3): 772-794.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.03.010
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    An MS7.4 earthquake occurred in Madoi County, Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province of China at 02:04 (Beijing Time) on May 22, 2021. A total of seven 800~3 000m trans-fault survey lines were targeted laid along different parts of the seismic surface rupture zone(the west, mid-west, mid-east, and the east), one month after the earthquake when the detailed field investigation of the coseismic displacement and the spread of the seismic surface rupture zone had been carried out. The soil gases were collected and the concentrations of Rn, H2, Hg, and CO2 were measured in situ.
    The results show that the maximum value of Rn, H2, Hg and CO2 concentrations in different fracture sections of the surface rupture was 2.10~39.17kBq/m3(mean value: 14.15kBq/m3), 0.4×10-6~720.4×10-6(mean value: 24.93×10-6), 4~169ng/m3(mean value: 30.72ng/m3)and 0.73%~4.04%(mean value: 0.59%), respectively. In general, the concentration of radon is low in the study area, which may be related to the thick overburden and the lithology dominated by sandstone. The concentration characteristics of hydrogen and mercury released from soil have good consistency, and the concentrations are higher at the east and west ends of the surface rupture zones but were lower in the middle of the rupture zone. This is consistent with the field investigation showing that the earthquake-induced surface rupture zone and deformation are more concentrated in the western section, while the eastern section has a large amount of seismic displacement.
    The fault strikes at the east and west ends of the Madoi MS7.4 earthquake surface rupture have deviated from the NW direction to a certain extent, and there also exits two branching faults and rupture complexities at the east end of the main fault of the Madoi earthquake. In the west end of the surface rupture, i.e., the south of Eling Lake, the fault strike turns to EW direction. We laid two survey lines(line 2 and line 3)at the west end of the rupture, the concentration of Rn, H2 and Hg escaped from line 3 is the lowest one among all lines while the gas concentration of line 2 is significantly higher. In the vicinity of line 3, the field geological survey did not find the cracked and exposed surface rupture, and only a small number of liquefaction points were distributed near the Eling Lake. The soil gas concentrations and morphological characteristics were consistent with the field phenomena. At the east end of the rupture zone, the soil gas morphological characteristics of the south and north fault branches were inconsistent: the soil gas of the south branch showed a single-peak type which was more similar to that at the west end, but the gas concentration pattern of the north fault branch showed a multiple-peaks type. This phenomenon is consistent with the characteristic shown in the surface fracture mapping, that is, the deformation zone of the rupture where is wider.
    To find out the source of soil gas and the possible influencing factors of soil gas concentrations in the study area, the carbon isotope and helium isotope of the collected gas samples were analyzed. The value of 3He/4He shows that the noble gas in the study area is mainly an atmospheric source, but the results of δ13C and CO2/3He show that the soil gas along the surface rupture of the Madoi earthquake has the mixed characteristics of atmospheric components and crustal components, which to a certain extent reflects the cutting depth of main fault-Jiangcuo fault may be shallow, and it is speculated that the surface rupture caused by Madoi MS7.4 earthquake may be confined to the shallow crust.

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    QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC DAMAGE IN TYPICAL SCENARIOS BASED ON OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY: THE CASE OF THE MAERKANG EARTHQUAKE SWARM, SICHUAN, CHINA
    XIAO Ben-fu, YUAN Xiao-xiang, CHEN Bo, ZHANG Lu-lu, LIANG Yuan-ling, QI Yu-ping, YANG Lu-yao, LIU Yang
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (4): 847-863.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.04.003
    Abstract120)   HTML23)    PDF(pc) (18321KB)(110)       Save

    Post-earthquake disaster information extraction and quantitative evaluation are the foundations of earthquake relief work. The effectiveness of its transmission mode and the accuracy of evaluation results directly affect the efficiency of post-earthquake emergency analysis, emergency response decision-making, and earthquake relief. In recent years, the nationally targeted poverty alleviation, reinforcement of housing facilities in earthquake-prone areas, and the rapid promotion of urbanization have greatly improved the overall seismic protection capability of buildings, and the reference indexes of seismic damage assessment have changed from the previous focus on the damage indexes of the roof of the disaster-bearing body to the comprehensive damage indexes of the roof of the disaster-bearing body, external walls, and subsidiary structures. The traditional two-dimensional damage assessment method based on a quasi-vertical perspective can hardly meet the requirements of an accurate quantitative assessment of earthquake damage at this stage.

    With the rapid development of aerial photography technology, the efficiency and accuracy of earthquake hazard information extraction and quantitative earthquake hazard assessment have been greatly improved. The three-dimensional seismic damage scenario visualization model based on UAV oblique photography technology has the advantages of multi-angle, high accuracy, and rich texture, which can accurately reflect the characteristic differences of seismic disasters of disaster-bearing bodies. It can be used to realize multi-dimensional and high-granularity seismic damage information extraction, thus effectively improving the accuracy of a quantitative assessment of single-time and space-time seismic damage, and can provide scientific and technological support for practical quantitative assessment of seismic damage.

    On June 10, 2022, a M6.0 magnitude earthquake swarm occurred in Maerkang City, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture(also known as Aba Prefecture), Sichuan Province, in which the epicenter locations of three earthquakes of M5.8, M6.0 and M5.2 were located in Caodeng Town, Maerkang City, Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province, with source depths of 10km, 13km and 15km, respectively. After the swarm, the Sichuan earthquake agency initiated a level Ⅱ emergency response, and the earthquake site working group rushed to the earthquake site with UAV equipment to carry out oblique photography of typical buildings, geological hazards, and other earthquake damage.

    In this study, the quantitative evaluation process of typical scenario visualization seismic damage based on oblique photography technology is constructed. Based on the texture, spectrum, shape, position, and combination of UAV remote sensing images, the interpretation signs of scenario visualization seismic damage are established. Taking the Maerkang 6.0 earthquake swarm in Sichuan on June 10, 2022 as an example, the seismic damage information of typical scenario visualization houses in the meizoseismal area is extracted, and the quantitative evaluation of seismic disaster in the meizoseismal area is realized. At the same time, the feasibility and accuracy of the method are verified by the field seismic damage investigation results. The results show that: 1)the typical scenario visualization model constructed based on oblique photography can reflect the earthquake damage information on the top, exterior walls and bottom of buildings, which can intuitively reflect the earthquake damage aftershocks. Compared with the traditional post-earthquake remote sensing images from a quasi-vertical perspective, this model can more effectively extract the basic information and seismic damage information of the building hazard-bearing body. 2)According to the equivalent seismic damage index, the seismic damage degree of 520 houses in 3 types of building structures is quantitatively evaluated. Among these the equivalent seismic damage index of a Tibetan stone-wood structure is 0.60, the equivalent seismic damage index of a brick-concrete structure is 0.44, and the equivalent seismic damage index of a reinforced concrete frame structure is 0.37. The seismic intensity of the study area is determined to be Ⅷ degree(8 degree), which is consistent with the field survey results. The OA values and Kappa coefficients of seismic damage extraction based on visualization and field survey were 92% and 0.87, respectively, while the OA values and Kappa coefficients of seismic damage extraction based on UAV orthophotograph and field survey were 45% and 0.25, respectively, which showed that the seismic damage extraction based on visualization was more accurate than that based on UAV orthophotograph in terms of recognition accuracy and precision. Compared with the quantitative assessment method of seismic damage based on UAV orthophotograph, the quantitative assessment method of earthquake damage based on scenario visualization is more effective in terms of recognition accuracy and precision. The typical scenario-based visualized seismic damage extraction method based on oblique photography technology provides a new idea for high-precision UAV remote sensing data for building damage extraction work, and its extraction results can be used as a reference basis for seismic intensity assessment, earthquake emergency rescue and personnel command and dispatch.

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    THE ANALYSIS OF THE STARTING YEAR AND THE COM-PLETENESS OF SEISMIC RECORDS FOR EARTHQUAKES WITH MAGNITUDES M≥7 IN THE BORDER REGION OF SICHUAN, YUNNAN AND TIBET
    ZHOU Jie-yuan, ZHOU Qing, RAN Hong-liu
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (4): 914-935.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.04.007
    Abstract145)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (8795KB)(109)       Save

    Earthquake catalog is the foundational data for analyzing seismic activity, assessing seismic hazard, and studying earthquake prediction. The majority of historical earthquake records are sourced from historical documents, with a significant portion of these records found in local gazetteers. Compiling historical literature is an essential way in analyzing seismic activity because historical accounts of earthquakes often provide more detailed and accurate information than geological data. Among these sources, analyzing relevant content in local gazetteers, such as the historical development of local governance, military garrison, official records, and descriptions of disasters and auspicious events, plays a crucial role in seismic activity research. This article aims to acquire historical earthquake records by consulting local gazetteers, folk books, and other historical sources containing natural, social, and political records. These records serve as historical foundations for analyzing the completeness of seismic data records.

    The border region between Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet is located in the northwest secondary block of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, which is one of the areas with frequent strong earthquakes in China. The Xianshuihe fault zone and the Jinshajiang fault zone are the northeastern and northwestern boundary faults of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, respectively. They are large-scale and highly active fault zones formed due to the eastward escape of the Tibetan plateau caused by the relative movement between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Previous studies on active tectonics have shown that major earthquakes with magnitudes of 8 and above, as well as over 80% of strong earthquakes with magnitudes of 7, mainly occur in the boundary zones of active blocks with intense structural deformation and high stress accumulation. Moreover, the known active faults in the study area, such as the Batang fault and Litang fault, are also major faults that significantly have influence on the occurrence strong earthquakes. The Sichuan-Yunnan-Tibet adjacent region is home to significant infrastructure, including the Sichuan-Tibet railway and hydropower stations. Analyzing the completeness of earthquake data in the border region of Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet can contribute to the assessment of fault hazards and the analysis of regional seismic activity trends. This, in turn, can help minimize the damage caused by earthquakes to critical infrastructure and further enhance the safety and security of people’s lives and properties.

    This study reviewed the local gazetteers of 44 counties in the border region between Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet, and summarized the establishment and historical evolution of each county. Based on the analysis of the road evolution from Sichuan to Tibet and from Yunnan to Tibet, we examined the significant roles of important transportation hubs and nodes, such as stations, pond flood, and grain platforms, in regarding of recording earthquakes. Combining various historical sources and previous research on the completeness of earthquake data in the region, we conducted a comprehensive analysis to determine the probable starting years for the availability of seismic records of magnitude 7 and above in the Xianshuihe area and the three parallel rivers area. Additionally, based on the data of the length and short axis of isoseismal lines from 88 earthquakes, an elliptical model was used to derive the seismic intensity attenuation relationship for the Sichuan-Yunnan block. By placing the fitted isoseismal lines of magnitude 6 and 7 earthquakes in the study area, we analyzed their impact range, providing a spatial dimension basis for the completeness analysis of seismic data.

    This article provides a comprehensive analysis and demonstration of the complete starting years of seismic data in the border region between Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet from both temporal and spatial perspectives. The results indicate that due to the establishment of grain stations and Tangxun along the Sichuan-Tibet road, as well as the appointment of officials, several counties in the Xianshuihe area, including Kangding, Luhuo, Garzê, Litang, and Yajiang, were developed between 1719 and 1736. At the same time, there are relatively abundant historical documents related to earthquakes in the Xianshuihe area. Local chronicles, reports from governors and resident ministers, written records in Tibetan temples, and accounts from lamas have documented earthquake surveys, disaster assessments, and relief efforts. By combining these historical sources with the analysis of intensity attenuation relationships in the Sichuan-Yunnan block, the affected areas of earthquakes with magnitudes 6 and 7 can be determined that the period from 1719 to 1736 marks the starting years with complete M≥7 earthquake data in the Xianshuihe area. The towns of Batang, Mangkang, and Changdu in the three parallel rivers area are also significant nodes and hubs along the road to Tibet. They were established with administrative institutions and granaries between 1719 and 1728, and the road network extensively covered Tangxun in the region. In considering the seismic records and historical sources in the three parallel rivers area, as well as referencing the recording capabilities of granaries, administrative institutions, and Tangxun in the Xianshuihe area, and estimating the potential recorded seismic magnitudes based on the intensity attenuation relationships of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, it can be suggested that the period from 1719 to 1728 is a possible starting point for complete earthquake data with M≥7 in the three parallel rivers area. In areas farther away from the road to Tibet, such as Jiangda, Gongjue, Baiyu, Xinlong, and the northern regions of Batang and Litang, as well as the large contiguous regions of Derong, Xiangcheng, Daocheng, and Jiulong, the eastern boundary is the Xianshuihe fault zone, while the area between the two zones is divided by the northeast-oriented Batang fault. Previous seismic geological investigations have found that within the aforementioned regions, the influence of the Jinshajiang fault zone extends along the Batang-Derong-Benzilan line. In remote areas away from the road and with sparse population, the possibility of individual earthquakes with magnitudes above 7 occurring but being missed cannot be ruled out. However, in other areas not located on active fault zones, it can be considered unlikely to experience earthquakes with magnitudes above 7. Based on the analysis of the data, the starting years of earthquakes with a magnitude of 6 and above should be the same as those of earthquakes with a magnitude of 7 and above. However, according to the analysis of the average occurrence rate of earthquakes per year, there is a significant lack of records for earthquakes of magnitude 6 and above. This may be due to the sparsely populated and vast nature of the Tibetan region during historical times, limited administrative capabilities of officials, and lack of earthquake historical records and documents. Therefore, it is not possible to determine the exact starting year for complete data on earthquakes of magnitude 6, which would be the same as for earthquakes of magnitude 7 and above.

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    PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS ALGORITHM INTEGRATING THREE-DIMENSIONAL FAULT SOURCES AND POTENTIAL SEISMIC SOURCE ZONE USING RANDOM SAMPLING
    CHEN Kun, GAO Meng-tan, YU Yan-xiang, XU Wei-jin, DU Yi, LI Xue-jin, LU Dong-hua
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 435-454.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.008
    Abstract146)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (7698KB)(104)       Save

    Using the Monte Carlo random sampling method, a set of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis calculation programs that integrates our country’s traditional planar potential seismic source zone and three-dimensional fault sources is developed. The program is not only suitable for our country’s traditional regional area sources, but also considers the rupture scale of earthquakes and is compatible with the probabilistic seismic hazard calculation of three-dimensional fault sources. The algorithm developed in this paper efficiently realizes the three-dimensional simulation of the seismic event set of the fault source and introduces the earthquake rupture scale into the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis calculation in China, which significantly improves the rationality of the seismic hazard calculation in the near-fault area. In order to improve the execution efficiency of the program, the algorithm adopts the method of filling grid points in the planar potential seismic source zone in advance and randomly simulating the uniform distribution of seismic events in the planar potential seismic source zone. For the seismic hazard calculation of elliptical attenuation relationship, the algorithm uses pre-constructed three-dimensional matrices of the distance of the ellipse minor axis under different magnitudes, distances, and different angles between sites and the ellipse long axis direction of potential seismic source zone, and directly obtains the corresponding distance of ellipse minor axis through table look-up and interpolation. The algorithm developed in this paper avoids the problem of low computational efficiency in the iterative approximation of the distance of the ellipse minor axis. The mathematical expression of the three-dimensional fault source is based on the Frankel fault plane form of the 2002 edition of the National Seismic Hazard Map of the United States. The surface track and average dip Angle of the fault are used to create the rectangular fault plane, in which the dip direction of each rectangle is always perpendicular to the strike of its local fault segment. To maintain the coordination between the rupture area and the magnitude, the rupture of the earthquake occurring on the fault plane should not exceed the fault plane or the combination of fault planes. If the boundary of the rupture plane is outside the fault boundary, the entire rupture plane will move so that the boundary of the entire rupture plane matches the boundary of the fault plane. Using the probabilistic seismic hazard program of the Seismic ground motion parameters zonation map of China(2015)and the algorithm developed in this paper, the regional seismic hazard of the study area including Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan of the urban agglomeration in Hunan Province with moderate to strong seismic activity are calculated. Seismic hazard at different probability levels(return periods of 50.8, 475 and 2 475 years, respectively)for the Changde near-fault sources and Zhuzhou sites are also computed. The comparative study shows that the procedure of the Seismic ground motion parameters zonation map of China(2015)underestimates the seismic hazard near the three-dimensional fault source, and the degree of underestimation becomes more significant as the probability level decreases. Considering the influence of the earthquake rupture scale at the low exceedance probability level, the decomposition results of the seismic hazard for sites near fault show that the contribution of the seismic hazard is different from that of the traditional method of the Seismic ground motion parameters zonation map of China(2015), which mainly focuses on the earthquake of high magnitude. However, earthquakes of all magnitudes on the fault source can contribute to the seismic hazard, but the proportion of high magnitudes is the largest. Finally, an example verifying the probabilistic seismic hazard program(data set 1 case 10)from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center(PEER)is used to verify the reliability of the algorithm developed in this paper.

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    ACTIVITY PERIOD, FORMATION MECHANISM AND TECTONIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE KALAYU’ERGUN FAULT IN THE WESTERN KUQA DEPRESSION
    SHEN Bai, ZHANG Zhi-liang, REN Zhi-kun, LIU Jin-rui
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (6): 1247-1264.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.06.001
    Abstract128)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (5216KB)(102)       Save

    As the NW-trending dextral strike-slip fault on the northern margin of the Tarim Basin, the Kalayu’ergun Fault defines the western boundary between the western Kuqa Depression and Wensu Bulge. It holds immense importance to understand the deformation occurring within the Kuqa Depression. However, there is still ongoing debate regarding the length, activity time and formation mechanism of the Kalayu’ergun Fault. In this study, a comprehensive investigation was conducted, incorporating sub-surface geophysical data, high-resolution remote sensing satellite images, and the findings of previous researchers. The results demonstrate that the Kalayu’ergun Fault cuts off the Awate anticline in the north, and to the south, it extends near the southern flank of the North Kalayu’ergun anticline but does not reach the Middle Kalayu’ergun anticline. The total extension of the fault is estimated to be approximately 40km. And the minimum of the fault strike-slip distance is estimated by the sum of the tectonic shortening of the North Kalayu’ergun anticline and the shortening absorbed by the strata on the northern flank of the Awate anticline through drag, which amounts to about 4.1-4.3km. Additionally, the Kalayu’ergun Fault has been active since its formation in the early Pliocene, but its activity intensity has been weakened obviously. The activity of the Kalayu’ergun Fault corresponds to the deformation time of the North Kalayu’ergun anticline, which is consistent with the deformation time determined using the same structural sedimentary constraints. This indicates that the North Kalayu’ergun anticline was formed under the combined action of near north-south compressional and horizontal shear stresses. The development of this transverse fault is synchronous with the overthrust structures on both sides and is developed in synchrony with the strong uplift of the southern Tian Shan orogenic belt since the late Cenozoic. The formation of the Kalayu’ergun Fault can be affected not only by the differences in the basement nature on both sides but also closely related to the difference in the thickness of the gypsum salt layer. The former resulted in variations in horizontal shortening on both sides of the fault, leading to the tearing of the Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The latter, which under the action of the extrusion stress, influenced the generation and evolution of salt-overlying beds, and then influenced the formation of the fault. In addition, the existence of prior salt structures, also known as salt diapirs, may have also played an important role in the formation of the fault. As the boundary fault in the western part of the Kuqa Depression, the Kalayu’ergun Fault is responsible for accommodating crustal shortening on both sides and even in the whole eastern and western parts of the Kuqa Depression. As a result, the shortening of the Kuqa Depression gradually decreased from east to west. Furthermore, the Kalayu’ergun Fault also had significant impacts on geomorphology, as it controls and modifies the landscape in the southern Tian Shan foreland basin. In the meanwhile, the Kalayu’ergun Fault creates favorable conditions for the transportation and accumulation of oil and gas resources.

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    RESEARCH ON RAPID ESTIMATION METHOD OF EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE BASED ON STRONG-MOTION RECORDS
    MENG Rui, ZHANG Yuan-fan, XIE Xiao-feng, NIE Zhi-xi, WANG Zhen-jie, SHAN Xin-jian
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (5): 1219-1232.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.05.011
    Abstract111)   HTML13)    PDF(pc) (7538KB)(98)       Save

    Earthquake Early Warning(EEW)is the rapid acquisition of earthquake epicenter, magnitude, and occurrence time after a destructive earthquake has started to issue alerts to the public before the arrival of transverse waves and long-period surface waves. Magnitude estimation plays a significant role in EEW algorithm research, serving as a fundamental component for early warning, post-earthquake disaster assessment, and emergency response. Seismic monitoring methods primarily focus on technologies like High-rate Global Navigation Satellite System (HR-GNSS) and strong-motion instruments. HR-GNSS is capable of capturing high-precision ground deformation signals and offers the advantages of a non-saturation recording range, making it crucial for rapid estimation of earthquake magnitudes during major seismic events. However, due to the low GNSS sampling rate and high instrument noise, observational noise often overshadows the deformation signals obtained during low-magnitude earthquakes. Additionally, the sparse distribution of GNSS stations currently impacts the accuracy and timeliness of magnitude estimation. Strong-motion observation methods, characterized by high sampling rates, low noise, and dense station distribution, are widely applied in magnitude estimation. Prevalent methods for strong-motion magnitude estimation often rely on P-wave arrival time information for timely determination of magnitude, commonly used in earthquake early warning systems. Yet, these methods are susceptible to saturation effects, leading to underestimation of magnitudes for large earthquakes. Moment magnitude estimation methods are closely associated with rupture characteristics of the seismic source and hold clear physical significance. However, determining this magnitude necessitates knowledge of the rupture extent and slip distribution along the fault plane, which are challenging to precisely obtain at the moment of earthquake occurrence. Hence, such methods are generally employed for post-event magnitude calculations.

    Addressing these challenges, this paper proposes a novel method for rapidly estimating earthquake magnitudes using Peak Ground Velocity(PGV)derived from strong motion. First, a comprehensive dataset of strong-motion acceleration records is compiled, covering nearly 20 years and including 5 596 records from 23 global seismic events with magnitudes ranging from 6.0 to 9.0. These records encompass epicentral distances from 1km to 1 000km, with source depths within 60km. A uniform processing approach is applied to standardize the records in terms of time domain orientation, measurement units(converted to cm/s2), and file formats. Data from each station is categorized into three directions: East-West(EW), North-South(NS), and Vertical(UD). Subsequently, the data is converted into the Seismic Analysis Code(SAC)file format, which is specialized for digital seismic waveform data exchange. Ensuring accurate PGV measurements from strong-motion data involves meticulous data preprocessing. This includes removing the mean acceleration from the first 5 seconds before the seismic event for simple bias correction, followed by baseline correction using a high-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 0.02Hz. The preprocessed strong-motion acceleration records are then integrated to obtain velocity, enabling the measurement of PGV. A robust PGV-based magnitude estimation model, suitable for rapid earthquake magnitude estimation, is constructed using the least-squares regression method.

    Furthermore, the constructed PGV-based magnitude estimation model undergoes comprehensive experimental analysis. Initially, the residuals between observed PGV values from 5596 strong-motion records and PGV values predicted by the regression model are computed to evaluate the precision of the constructed PGV-based magnitude estimation model. The model is validated using four earthquake events not included in its construction: the 2021 Damasi MW6.3 earthquake, the 2012 Nicoya MW7.6 earthquake, the 2008 Wenchuan MW7.9 earthquake, and the 2014 Iquique MW8.2 earthquake. This validation process assesses the reliability of the constructed magnitude estimation model. Finally, the paper conducts a study on rapid magnitude estimation to evaluate the timeliness and accuracy of the PGV-based magnitude estimation model within this context.

    The experimental results indicate that the predicted values of strong-motion PGV are largely consistent with the observed values for 23 seismic events, with a root mean square error of residuals measuring 0.296. For the four seismic events that were not included in the modeling process, the estimated magnitudes based on strong-motion PGV correspond closely to the moment magnitudes reported by the United States Geological Survey(USGS). The absolute deviations for these events are 0.15, 0.14, 0.05, and 0.13 magnitude units, with an average absolute deviation of 0.12 magnitude units. In the investigation of rapid magnitude estimation, the following outcomes were observed: For the Damasi MW6.3 earthquake, an initial magnitude of 5.03 was calculated at 13 seconds, approaching the theoretical magnitude at 63 seconds, and reaching a convergent magnitude of 6.09 at 76 seconds. Regarding the Nicoya MW7.6 earthquake, a preliminary magnitude of 4.57 was computed within 6 seconds, approximating the theoretical magnitude at 30 seconds, and converging to 7.46 at 50 seconds. In the case of the Wenchuan MW7.9 earthquake, a preliminary magnitude of 4.06 was determined within 19 seconds. At 50 seconds, the calculated magnitude approached the theoretical value, and it converged to 7.81 at 84 seconds. For the Iquique MW8.2 earthquake, an initial magnitude of 6.45 was estimated within 2 seconds, nearing the theoretical magnitude at 55 seconds, and achieving a convergent magnitude of 8.04 at 70 seconds. The convergence time for rapid magnitude estimation for all four events was consistently under 90 seconds.

    This experimental findings underscore the applicability of the constructed PGV-based magnitude estimation model for rapid earthquake magnitude estimation. The model's ability to counter saturation effects and prevent magnitude underestimation reinforces its robustness and offers substantial technical support for earthquake early warning systems and post-earthquake emergency response strategies.

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    CRUSTAL DENSITY STRUCTURE OF THE EASTERN TIBETAN PLATEAU AND ITS GEODYNAMIC IMPLICATIONS
    LI Dan-dan, TANG Xin-gong, XIONG Zhi-tao
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (4): 936-951.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.04.008
    Abstract132)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (6726KB)(97)       Save

    The continuous collision and convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates have caused strong uplift and deformation within the Tibetan plateau and the surrounding areas. The eastern Tibetan plateau, as an important channel for the eastward and south-eastward expansion of plateau materials, is an critical area for understanding the interaction between the Tibetan plateau and the eastern tectonic blocks and for understanding the eastward escape of plateau deep materials, which is of great significance for studying the uplift and deformation mechanism of the Tibetan plateau. A large number of studies on the eastern Tibetan plateau have provided an important basis for revealing the uplift mechanism of this region. However, its complex geology makes it difficult in understanding the uplift mechanism from the single geophysical interpretation. The gravity field reflects the density properties of the subsurface material, and can be related to the wave velocity properties of the seismic data by certain translation relationships. In addition, gravity data can improve the crustal model of the area not adequately covered by seismic data, which can not only provide the three-dimensional crustal density structure of the area, but also reflect the relationship between the spatial distribution of earthquakes and the crustal structure from a gravity perspective. In this paper, based on the previous research results, we selected field survey gravity data of nine intersecting lines and used the deep seismic reflection as the constraint to invert the density interface depth distribution of each line by using human-computer interaction mode, and then used the kriging interpolation method to obtain the three-dimensional Moho depth and basement depth in the area, and then we obtained the sediment thickness by analyzing the difference between the topography and the basement depth. The inversion results show that the overall trend of Moho depth is deep in the west and shallow in the east, with the deepest depth in the west being 61km and the shallowest in the east being about 40km. There is a large difference between the two sides of the arc belt formed by the Longmenshan-Anninghe-Xiaojinhe fault, with the northwest side of the arc belt basically above 52km, among which the Moho depth is about 58km in the Bayankara block and the northern part of the Chuan-Dian rhombus block, and about 53km in the Chuan-Dian rhombus block and the southern part of the Indo-China block. The Moho depth is about 42km in the Sichuan Basin on the east side of the arc belt, which constitutes a gradient zone of Moho depth around the Tibetan plateau. There also exists a depressional zone of Moho in the Bayankara block, which may be related to the eastward flow of plateau material and the blockage of Sichuan Basin, so that part of the asthenosphere material accumulates and squeezes, thus forming a relatively thicker crust and the sinking of Moho. Part of the eastward overflowing asthenosphere material turns to the south and south-east direction, resulting in the thickness of the crust in the southwest of the Chuan-Dian rhombus block is greater than the east and west sides. At the same time, the late Paleozoic mantle column activity led to the uplift of the lithosphere and the intrusion of high-density material into the lithosphere, which also blocked the southward flow of material from part of the Tibetan plateau. From the inverted sediment thickness, the sediment on the eastern Tibetan plateau is relatively thicker in the center of several tectonic blocks, up to 7km thick, while the sediment at the edges of the blocks is relatively thinner, and even bedrock is exposed in some areas. Combined with the spatial distribution characteristics of earthquakes in this area, the Moho depth and sediment thickness distribution in the eastern Tibetan plateau are strongly correlated with the distribution of earthquakes in this area, which has important reference value for future earthquake prediction.

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    HYDROLOGICAL PROPERTIES ESTIMATION BY WATER LEVEL IN RESPONSE TO BAROMETRIC PRESSURE
    LIU Wei, BAI Xi-min, LÜ Shao-jie, SHI Zhe-ming, QI Zhi-yu, HE Guan-ru
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (3): 652-667.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.03.004
    Abstract166)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (3448KB)(96)       Save

    Groundwater, as one of the most active components of the earth's crust, has a sensitive reflection to crustal stress as well as solid deformation. Previous studies have shown that fluctuations in barometric pressure cause corresponding dynamic changes in well water level, and the response of well water level to barometric pressure signal can reveal a lot of hydrogeological information such as groundwater movement law and aquifer water storage mechanism, and can also provide a new way to estimate the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer. The method of using well water level in response to barometric pressure to estimate the hydraulic parameters is in-situ, low cost, and low disturbance, which has certain advantages compared with traditional field hydrogeological tests.
    We analyze the water level and barometric pressure data of the monitoring wells in the fault zone, and the change characteristics of the permeability of the fault zone can be obtained. The seismicity of the Qujiang fault is strong, and studying its permeability and evolution characteristics plays an important role in understanding the seismicity in this area. Therefore, in this study, we took the Gaoda well in the Qujiang fault zone in Yunnan Province as the object of study, and collected minute level data of well water level and barometric pressure from February 2019 to July 2020, based on the response of the well water level to the barometric pressure signal in different periods to calculate the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer using barometric response function and analyzed the change characteristics of the permeability of the fault zone after the earthquake. At the same time, compared and analyzed the parameter estimation results with the results calculated by previous methods using well water level in response to earth tide and slug test. The results show that:
    (1)The aquifer permeability of the Gaoda well ranges from 8.89×10-15 to 11.10×10-15m2 and the transmissivity ranges from 2.44×10-6 to 3.05×10-6m2/s during different observation periods, and the overall variation is not significant and fluctuates within a certain range, indicating the aquifer permeability of the Gaoda well did not change significantly after the earthquake, and the permeability of the Qujiang fault zone was relatively stable. Meanwhile, previous studies on the tidal analysis of the Jiangchuan well near the southern section of the Xiaojiang fault zone, which is 16.6km away from Tonghai, showed that the permeability of its aquifer did not change significantly after the Tonghai 5.0 earthquake in 2018, indicating that the permeability of the southern section of the Xiaojiang fault zone and the Qujiang fault zone are relatively stable, and the hydraulic characteristics of the two have a certain similarity, and the comparison result between the two wells is referential to some extent.
    (2)The hydraulic parameters of the aquifer calculated based on the response of well water level to the barometric pressure are somewhat different from those calculated by previous authors using earth tide responses and slug tests, and the obtained parameters are slightly lower than those obtained by earth tide responses and slug tests, this may be due to the different factors considered by different methods and the different degrees of fracture development in the part of the fault zone where the well is located, resulting in a certain degree of heterogeneity in the aquifer, causing differences in the results obtained by different methods, which reflect the differences in the spatial scales, the applicability of the models, and the parameter range represented by the aquifer hydraulic parameters inferred by the response models of different well-aquifer systems. In addition, the barometric pressure signal acts in a wider frequency band, more parameters are inferred by the model, and its response can be recorded under different hydrogeological conditions, making the response model to barometric pressure more widely applicable.

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    DEEP STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE XINGTAI SEISMIC ZONE REVEALED BY PRECISE RELOCATION OF SMALL EARTHQUAKES AND TOMOGRAPHY
    LIU Kang, YANG Ting, LI Hong-guang, FANG Li-hua, SONG Jian
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (6): 1328-1348.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.06.005
    Abstract78)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (11306KB)(93)       Save

    From March 8th to 29th, 1966, five earthquakes(M≥6)occurred in the Xingtai area, with the MS6.8 earthquake on March 8th and the MS7.2 earthquake on March 22nd being the most severely damaged. The Xingtai earthquake resulted in over 8 000 deaths and the economic losses up to 1 billion yuan. The Xingtai earthquake has opened the scientific practice of earthquake prediction in China and is a milestone in the development of earthquake science in China.

    Based on previous research results, there is a deep fault beneath the Xingtai earthquake area, which is the energy source of earthquakes, while there is a relatively independent fault system in the shallow part, which is generally recognized by scholars. However, the divergence regarding the seismogenic structure of the Xingtai earthquake mainly focuses on the unclear coupling relationship between the deep and shallow structural systems in the seismic area. The structural relationship between deep seismic faults and the shallow Xinhe Fault system requires new evidence to determine. In addition, previous scholars have proposed the viewpoint of “Newly generated Fault”, which can better explain the rupture characteristics of the Xingtai earthquake, but it still needs to be supported by the inversion results of the seismic rupture process based on the three-dimensional crustal fine structure. There are many small earthquakes in the Xingtai area. Deep structural information can be obtained using small earthquake data. Especially after 2009, the significant improvement in earthquake positioning accuracy in North China has made it possible to obtain new insights into deep structures. By locating small earthquakes, the spatial distribution and motion characteristics of faults are characterized, and seismic travel time tomography reveals the deep crustal velocity structure characteristics of the earthquake area. Combining previous geophysical exploration results, conducting deep and shallow structural analysis is of great significance for studying the spatial distribution, motion characteristics, and coupling relationship between deep and shallow structural systems of the fault system in the study area. The continuous aftershocks after the 1966 MS7.2 earthquake in Xingtai, Hebei Province, have provided favorable conditions for conducting studies on deep tectonic structures in the region.

    In this paper, based on the observation data of the Hebei seismostation from 1991 to 2021, we obtained the precise position results of 9 644 earthquakes in Xingtai and its neighboring area using the double-difference positioning method, and depicted the spatial patterns of deep ruptures. Based on the observation data of the North China Mobile Seismic Array from 2006 to 2008, 38 578 P-wave arrivals were used to obtain high-resolution travel time tomography results in the study area. This study shows that there are strong lateral heterogeneities in the velocity structure of the crust in the study area, with obvious low-velocity anomalies in the upper crust and high-velocity anomalies in the middle and lower crusts between the Xinhe Fault and the Yuanshi Fault, and the Xingtai earthquake is located at the junction of the high- and low-velocity anomalies, which has the medium conditions for accumulating large amounts of strain energy and is prone to rupture and stress release. The general trend of the dense zone of small earthquakes in the Xingtai earthquake area is relatively consistent with that of the eastern boundary of the high- and low-velocity anomalies. It is assumed that the deep and shallow fractures spreading along the eastern boundary of the high- and low-velocity bodies have been connected up and down and that the boundary of the anomalies is also a part where velocity changes are relatively strong and easily lead to seismic rupture; the results of various seismic and geological surveys have revealed that a deep major rupture that cuts through the entire crust exists beneath the Xingtai earthquake zone, with SE tendency and the upper breakpoint located near Dongwang, and the Xingtai earthquake prompted the deep and shallow pre-existing ruptures to connect from top to bottom.

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    THE RESEARCH ON RELOCATION AND FAULT PLANE SOLUTION AND GEOMETRIC MEANING OF THE MADUO M7.4 EARTHQUAKE ON 22 MAY 2021
    LIU Bai-yun, ZHAO Li, LIU Yun-yun, WANG Wen-cai, ZHANG Wei-dong
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 500-516.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.012
    Abstract139)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (6044KB)(92)       Save

    At 2:04 on May 22, 2021, an earthquake of M7.4 occurred in Maduo County, Golog Prefecture, Qinghai Province, with the focal depth of 17 kilometers, the epicenter at 34.59°N and 98.34°E. This earthquake was the largest after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The epicenter of the earthquake is 38km away from Maduo county seat and 385km from Xining, the provincial capital. The earthquake caused some houses to collapse and some damage to roads in the epicenter. But due to the sparse population in the epicenter area, the earthquake did not cause casualties.

    Seismologist believe that the earthquake is the result of the continuous activity of the boundary fault of the Bayankala block, which is geographically located in the north of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and is the hub for the transformation of the direction of the crustal movement of the plateau. In recent years, many destructive earthquakes occurred inside the block. This earthquake is another strong earthquake after the M7.1 Yushu earthquake in Qinghai in 2010. According to the analysis of this earthquake briefing, the fault zone that induced this earthquake is speculated to be the Maduo-Gande fault zone or the Kunlun Mountains Pass-Jiangcuo fault zone.

    In order to find out which fault is the seismogenic structure and the distribution of the seismogenic structure of this earthquake, we relocated the dense earthquakes by double-difference method based on the data of 1357 aftershocks in the Maduo M7.4 earthquake area recorded by 72 fixed stations of the digital seismic network of Gansu and its adjacent seismic network and 12 portable seismographic stations during the May 22 to May 27, and obtained the source parameters for 1289 earthquakes. The accurately located small earthquakes distribute along both sides of the Kunlun Mountains Pass-Jiangcuo Fault, which is NNW-trending obviously. It shows that the seismogenic structure of this earthquake is the Kunlun Mountains Pass-Jiangcuo Fault, rather than the Maduo Gande Fault as considered previously by some scholars. This is consistent with the research results of surface fracture zone, magnetotelluric detection, InSAR coseismic deformation and relocation of other aftershocks. Most earthquakes distribute at the depth range of 0~15km of the crust after the relocation, and the result shows that the focal depths are more concentrated. The relocation also shows that the east and west ends of the main fault have bifurcations. It may be that the complex stress distribution triggered two new branch faults during the occurrence of the great earthquake, and the overall fault shows a “tree-type” structure. The west branch trends 306°and intersects the main fault at 21°. The east branch is nearly EW trending and connected with the east section of the main fault.

    Generally, the earthquakes are closely related to active tectonics, large earthquakes and its aftershocks usually occur on fault zones with obvious activity. The distribution of small earthquakes is related to the complex underground stress state and the complex structure of the fault zone. We can inverse the shapes and positions of the fault planes using spatial distribution of hypocenters of mainshock and the corresponding aftershocks, according to the principle that clustered earthquakes occur near the faults. Six rectangular regions are selected according to the distribution characteristics of relocated aftershocks and by reference to the distribution of geological faults and earthquake rupture zones. We obtained the detailed parameters of fault plane in each region by using the simulated annealing algorithm and the Gauss-Newton algorithm according to the source information after the relocation in 6 rectangular areas. On this condition, rake angle of the fault plane is further inferred from regional tectonic stress parameters. The results show that the main fault is a large, high dip angle, sinistral strike-slip fault with thrust component, striking 285°~290° and about 146km long. It extends from Tanggema Township of Maduo in the southeast(34.49°N, 98.91°E)to Gazejialong Township in the northwest(34.81°N, 97.54°E). The movement characteristics of the newly generated western segment 2 show dextral strike slip and thrust, which is diametrically opposite to that of the main fault. This shows the complexity of the earthquake rupture process, and further research is needed on the tectonic mechanics and deep structures that produce this special rupture.

    Compared with the focal mechanism solutions obtained by domestic and foreign authorities, the fault plane parameters obtained in this paper are similar to them, indicating that our conclusions are reliable. Besides, the spatial distribution of inverted fault plane is basically identical to that of the rupture zone derived from post-earthquake investigation in the earthquake area.

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    COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKE-TRIGGERED LANDSLIDE EMERGENCY HAZARD ASSESSMENT MODELS: A CASE STUDY OF THE LUSHAN EARTHQUAKE WITH MW5.8 ON JUNE 1, 2022
    MA Si-yuan, XU Chong, CHEN Xiao-li
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (4): 896-913.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.04.006
    Abstract134)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (10815KB)(91)       Save

    Earthquake-induced landslides, as an important secondary geological disaster, typically occurring during or shortly after an earthquake, have the characteristics of large quantity and scale, wide distribution, complex mechanism, serious casualties and economic losses, and long-duration post-earthquake effect. Rapidly and accurately obtaining the spatial distribution and potential hazard assessment of coseismic landslide following an earthquake is critical for emergency rescue and resettlement planning. Currently, the most commonly-used coseismic landslide hazard assessment methods include the data-driven machine learning methods and the Newmark method based on mechanics mechanism. The 2022 MW5.8 Lushan earthquake provides a valuable window for us to carry out rapid emergence assessment of earthquake-induced landslides with different evaluation models. In this study, a new generation of China's earthquake landslide hazard model(hereinafter referred to as Xu2019 model)and a simplified Newmark model are used to carry out the rapid landslide assessment of Lushan event. The Xu2019 model selects 9 earthquake-induced landslide inventories around China as training samples and uses a total of 13 influencing factors such as elevation, relative elevation, slope angle, and aspect, and etc. to generate a near real-time evaluation model for coseismic landslides based on the LR method. The model can rapidly assess coseismic landslides towards a single earthquake event according to the actual PGA distribution. For Newmark model, the cumulative displacement(Dn)is calculated by the critical acceleration(ac)and PGA maps. For the landslide inventory of this earthquake event, we completed the landslide inventory covering the entire affected area based on high-resolution optical satellite images(Planet)with 3m resolution acquired on 6 July 2022. Based on the coseismic landslide inventory including 2 352 landslides with an area of 5.51km2, the accuracy and applicability of the two models are estimated. The results show that the landslide area calculated based on Xu2019 model is 5.07km2, which is very close to the actual landslide area, and the predicted area calculated based on Newmark model reaches 21.3km2. From the perspective of the spatial distribution of the prediction results, the distribution of the predicted high failure probabilities of the two models is roughly same, with the high probability values mainly located on the left side of the seismogenic fault. However, the difference lies in the low probability predictions of the northwest region of Baoxing county by the Xu2019 model. A zoomed-in view of a specific area comparing the spatial distribution of predicted landslide probabilities with the landslide abundance area shows that most actual landslide are concentrated in the medium to high failure probability areas predicted by the Xu2019 model, with only a few sporadic events occurring in the low probability zone. On the other hand, the Newmark model primarily identifies high instability probability regions in steep slope areas, which correspond closely to the actual landslide and collapse occurrences. However, the predicted hazard level of the northwest region i.e. the landslide highly developed area is obviously low by Xu2019 model, while the prediction result based on Newmark model for the southwest region is obviously overestimated. In terms of the LR model, the prediction results are very close to the actual landslide distribution, and the majority of the landslides are essentially located in areas with a high failure probability, indicating that the model has a relatively high prediction accuracy. The ROC curve is used to assess the model's accuracy. The results suggest that the model based on Xu2019 outperforms the Newmark model, with a prediction accuracy of 0.77, while the prediction accuracy of the Newmark model is 0.74. Overall, both two models have good practicability in the rapid evaluation of cosesimic landslide. However, the Newmark model needs multi parameter input, and these parameters themselves and the way of human acquisition are uncertain, which results in that the model evaluation is greatly affected by subjectivity.

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    STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS AND MECHANISM OF LONG-PERIOD GEOELECTRIC FIELD VARIATION: A CASE STUDY FROM DULAN SEISMIC STATION
    XI Ji-lou, ZHAO Jia-liu, GAO Shang-hua, WANG Xiao-lei, LI Guo-you, MENG Fan-bo
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (5): 1092-1111.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.05.004
    Abstract108)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (4729KB)(90)       Save

    The geoelectric field is an important geophysical field, and the long-term geoelectric field is also an important component of the Earth's electromagnetic field, which mainly refers to the geoelectric field with a variation period greater than 100,000 seconds. The long-term geoelectric field can dynamically reflect the trend changes of spontaneous electric field, periodic changes of telluric electricity field, and other seasonal disturbances. Furthermore, it can further reveal the basic characteristics and physical mechanisms are related to the sources of the electromagnetic field, through such analysis and research on the changes in the long-term geoelectric field.

    In this paper, a systematic study has been conducted on the basic characteristics and variation mechanism of the long-term geoelectric field, which is mainly based on long-term geoelectric field observation data Dulan seismic station in Qinghai Province from 2015 to 2022. Firstly, based on interference preprocessing and reliability analysis, various methods and approaches such as wavelet analysis, median filtering, convolutional filtering, linear fitting are used to filter out high-frequency disturbances in the geoelectric field and to extract and analyze the components of long-term geoelectric field variation. At the same time, based on the analysis results of the abnormal changes in the electric field at the Dawu seismic station before and after the Madoi MS7.4 earthquake, the possible correlation and main field source mechanism between the abnormal variation of the electric field at the Dulan seismic station and the earthquake has been analyzed and discussed.

    The research results show that, from the observation data of geoelectric field at Dulan seismic station: 1)It has relatively strong long-term stability and variation reliability, with the arithmetic mean value of the daily correlation coefficient not less than 0.98, and that of the daily variation difference not more than 0.2mV/km, in the Same measurement direction; 2)The FFT spectrum analysis results include not only short and medium cycle changes such as 24h, 12h, 8h and 6h, but also long cycle changes such as annual cycle, semi-annual cycle and so on; 3)The daily variation range shows seasonal variation with high in summer and low in winter, and the significant variation includes annual cycle, half-year cycle, 27-day cycle, half-month cycle; 4)The trend variation shows a typical periodic annual changing feature as the sine wave change, and the annual extreme value and change amplitude are basically the same; 5)Before and after the Madoi MS7.4 earthquake, there were obvious abnormal distortions from the annual variation.

    Theoretical and mechanism analysis shows that the periodic changes in the daily variation amplitude of the geoelectric field at the Dulan seismic station mainly come from the periodic changes in spatial field sources, and the trend periodic changes of the geoelectric field mainly come from the long-term tidal effect generated by the gravitational action of the sun. During the process of Earth's orbit and rotation around the sun, the periodic changes in direct solar radiation, as well as in the ionospheric plasma concentration and the underground fluid seepage field caused by the gravitational force of the sun, are the important excitation mechanisms for this long-term periodic change of the geoelectric field.

    According to the comprehensive analysis, it is believed that the variation of the geoelectric field data observed at the Dulan seismic station has excellent objectivity, reliability, and long-term stability, which can reflect the characteristics of long-term geoelectric field changes and abnormal distortion characteristics of the geoelectric field before and after strong earthquakes. And the change mechanism is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis results and has strong research and application value.

    In summary, the research results which carried out on the long-term variation of the geoelectric field, as well as revealed the important mechanisms of the generation and variation of Earth's electromagnetic fields, will have more important enlightening significance and reference value in the multifaceted research work about the geoelectric field observation, such as the site survey, observation system construction, observation data analysis and application et al.

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    STUDY ON THE REGIONAL GRAVITY GRADIENT FIELD MODELING IN IRREGULAR AREA WITH CONSIDERATION OF SURFACE FLUCTUATION: A CASE STUDY OF YUNNAN PROVINCE
    LIU Jin-zhao, LIANG Xing-hui, YE Zhou-run, CHEN Zhao-hui, HU Min-zhang, HAN Yu-fei, WANG Qing-hua, LIU Dong, HAO Hong-tao, ZHANG Shuang-xi, CHEN Ming
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (5): 1129-1146.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.05.006
    Abstract104)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (9247KB)(86)       Save

    The gravity gradient full tensor can sense the slight changes of the gravity vector in different directions, and because of the large number of components(6 components), it can reflect more information on different sides of the same field source than the gravity vector. On the other hand, the ground gravity survey has accumulated a lot of basic gravity vector data, and using the mathematical relationship between the gravity vector and the full tensor of gravity gradient to build a full tensor gravity gradient field model is helpful to the depth mining of existing gravity data information.

    Based on the mathematical relation and covariance function relation of disturbance potential, gravity anomaly, gravity disturbance and gravity gradient disturbance, along with the Least Square Configuration(LSC)algorithm, in this paper, the numerical formulas have been derived in detail for modeling the full tensor of regional gravity gradient disturbance field from gravity disturbance or gravity anomaly which distributed on undulating surface with non-grid pattern. The full tensor of gravity gradient derived from the grid distributed gravity anomaly data in West Arnhem Land, Australia by using the spectral domain(two-dimensional fast Fourier transform)method were taken as the “reference value”, Then, the full tensor of gravity gradient, in the same area with irregular regional gravity data distribution, derived form the LSC algorithm based on derived formulas were taken as the “evaluated value”.

    By comparing the differences between the “reference value” and the “evaluated value” of the gravity gradient, we found that: 1)The “evaluated value” obtained by the LSC method is consistent in spatial pattern of variation with the “reference value” derived from the spectral domain method. The vertical component of the gravity gradient disturbance describes the boundary characteristics of the field source more precisely than the vertical component of the gravity anomaly, and other gravity gradient disturbance components provide the information representation of the same field source, which provides inspiration for the in-depth interpretation of the field source. 2)Each difference component ΔδΓxxfft-lsc,ΔδΓxyfft-lsc,ΔδΓxzfft-lsc,ΔδΓyyfft-lsc,ΔδΓyzfft-lsc  and ΔΓzzfft-lsc  between the “evaluated value” and the “reference value” of the gravity gradient has systematic deviation, which is 5.54E, 5.30E, 1.85E, 6.55E, 2.09E and 9.67E respectively. It is much lower than the difference between measured gravity gradient and that from constructed model in previous studies. The results show that the accuracy of the two methods is within the allowable range, but the accuracy of the modeling method based on the Least Square Configuration needs to be further verified by the measured data.

    Finally, based on the measured surface differential gravity anomaly values in regional area of Yunnan province, the annul gravity gradient field variation model for this region, about 20km in half wavelength, is firstly constructed and presented by using the LSC with the derived formulas in this paper. The different gravity gradient component models show more abundant interannual scale signal variation characteristics, and demonstrate more local signal characteristics from different sensitive directions in Yunnan region during this time period. In addition, in the vicinity of Zhaotong city in northeast Yunnan province, because there is no gravity points available, both the annual difference results of gravity value and the annual change model of gravity gradient show uniform signal characteristics, indicating that the modeling method in this paper does not introduce additional false “anomalies”. In southern Yunnan province, where gravity points are relatively sparse, both the annual difference results of gravity values and the annual change models of gravity gradients are dominated by long-band signals, and no additional signals will be added due to the increase of expansion order of the LSC algorithm, which is also consistent with our intuitive cognition. These provide support for further research on the relationship between crustal material migration, hydrological changes and earthquakes in Yunnan region.

    The procedure and method proposed in this paper can improve the efficiency of using measured gravity data(mainly gravity anomaly and gravity disturbance). Moreover, it can provide basic data for better understanding and interpretation of gravity data, gravity gradient data and their relationship with different field sources in geophysics and geology.

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    STUDY ON HETEROGENEITY OF THE STRESS FIELD IN THE YANGBI EARTHQUAKE FAULT ZONE
    WAN Yong-ge, WANG Yu-ru, JIN Zhi-tong
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (4): 1025-1040.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.04.013
    Abstract175)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (7335KB)(86)       Save

    The fine crustal stress field plays an important role in geodynamics. The 2021 Yangbi earthquake sequence occurred in an area with densely deployed seismic stations. Before the mainshock, there occurred multiple 3-4 magnitude earthquakes. The mainshock was followed by strong aftershocks, MS5.0 and MS5.2, occurring 7 and 36 minutes later respectively. The earthquake sequence is a typical example of a “foreshock-mainshock-aftershock” earthquake sequence. The abundant seismic data of the 2021 Yangbi earthquake sequence provide many seismic focal mechanisms for the fine stress field analysis in the study region.

    To study the relationship of the stress field, fault structure, and earthquake dynamics in the Yangbi earthquake source region, the central focal mechanism solution algorithm is selected for the earthquakes with several focal mechanisms to ensure the accuracy of the focal mechanism data, and 93 precisely determined focal mechanism data are determined. The overall stress field in the source region is determined as a compressive stress axis of nearly NS direction and extensional stress axis of nearly EW direction. Then, to reveal the heterogeneity of the stress field in the source region, according to the location of the earthquake sequence, the focal mechanism solutions are divided into 6 regions by using the moving window strategy and obtain the stress field in each sub-region. To verify the inversion results are not caused by the selection of a specific partition mode, we used two different partition methods to discuss the stress field inversion experiments: 1)change the number of sub-regions from 6 to 8, the number of focal mechanisms in each subregion is still 23, and moving the 15 focal mechanisms in each iteration; 2)the number of the sub-region is still 6, change the number of focal mechanism to 28 in each subregion. It can be found that although the different partition strategies are changed, the characteristics of the obtained stress field will not change. Finally, the earthquake dynamics revealed in the heterogeneous stress area are analyzed.

    The results show that the compressive stress axis changed from NNW-SSE direction in the northwest of the Yangbi earthquake focal area to NNE-SSW direction in the southwest region, with the rotation angle of 23°; And the stress shape factor in the northwest part of the rupture zone is always larger than that in the southeast region. Combined with the geodynamics studies of crustal motion map, tomography from seismic data, hydrographic net distribution, and topography of the study region, it is speculated that the change of the stress field in the northwest and the southeast is caused by the combined action of the blocked southward movement of the material in the northern part of the fracture area and the NNE extension in the shallow part of the study area due to the low angle NNE subduction of the Indo-Burma arc. The horse-tail-like fault distribution in the southeast of the Yangbi earthquake fault zone and the mountain and river alignment around the Yangbi earthquake are consistent with the predicted stress deflection and stress shape factor change. These studies are of significance for understanding the characteristics of fault activity and earthquake dynamics in study regions.

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    THE 3-D SHALLOW VELOCITY STRUCTURE OF THE MIDDLE-NORTH SECTION OF THE DONGPU DEPRESSION DERIVED FROM DENSE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF AMBIENT NOISE
    ZHOU Ming, DUAN Yong-hong, TAN Yu-juan, QIU Yong
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2023, 45 (2): 517-535.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2023.02.013
    Abstract133)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (14483KB)(85)       Save

    Dongpu depression is located at the junction of Henan and Shandong in the south of Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China. It is an early Tertiary faulted basin with NNE strike, with thick sedimentation. It is adjacent to Luxi uplift in the East and Luxi uplift in the West. There are mainly three major faults in the area: Lanliao fault, Changyuan fault, and Yellow River fault. Lanliao fault is a major fault that controls the boundary between the Dongpu depression and the Luxi uplift. Changyuan fault is the boundary between the Dongpu depression and the Neihuang uplift. Yellow River fault is a secondary fault in the Dongpu depression. Dongpu depression controlled by these three fault zones has formed a structural form of “two depressions and one uplift”. To understand better the distribution of faults and velocity structure in the Middle-North Section of the Dongpu depression, from March 26 to April 22, 2018, the Geophysical Exploration Center, China Earthquake Administration set up a short-period dense seismic array consisting of 412 short-period seismometers in the middle-north section of the Dongpu depression, the Luxi Uplift the Neihuang Uplift. The array range is about 50km×45km, the station spacing is 1.3~2.5km, and the station spacing around the array is 4.5km. In the array, there is also a linear array with a length of about 50km, with a station spacing is about 500m, and 98 stations, which are distributed near vertical fractures. Based on noise cross-correlation technology, cross-correlations of vertical component ambient noise data of different station pairs are computed in 1-day segments and stacked. Clear fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves are observed from 0.5s to 5s period. Then we use the direct surface wave tomographic method with period-dependent ray tracing and a wavelet-based sparsity constrained to invert phase dispersion travel-time data simultaneously for 3-D shear-wave velocity structure. The shear-wave velocity model results from 0.5km to 3.5km depths are consistent with the known geologic features and reveal strong shallow crustal heterogeneity. The results follows: 1)the velocity of the Middle-North Section of Dongpu depression in the study area is low, the velocity of the Neihuang uplift and Luxi uplift on both sides are high, and the shear velocity variation between uplift and depression continues to about 3.5km. 2)The boundary between high and low velocity coincides with the boundary of depression and uplift, and is also consistent with Lanliao Fault and Changyuan Fault, indicating that the caprock deposition in the Dongpu depression is controlled by the Lanliao fault and Changyuan fault. 3)The Cenozoic sedimentary structure of the Dongpu depression is mainly controlled by Lanliao fault. The 1~3.5km depression shows obvious low velocity characteristics, indicating that the Paleogene Lanliao fault activity has a strong impact on the sedimentary characteristics of the middle-north section of the Dongpu depression; the velocity difference between the depression and uplift of 0~1km decreases, the Neogene and quaternary Lanliao fault activities become weaker, and the sedimentary structures in this period are less affected by the Lanliao fault. Although the velocity of the Dongpu depression is generally low, the depression also shows some heterogeneity: the sedimentary structure of the northern section is not only controlled by the Lanliao fault, At the same time, it also received that the control of the secondary fault in the depression presents “W” shape, which disappears in the middle section, indicating that the Cenozoic sedimentary structure of Dongpu depression is mainly controlled by the Lanliao fault, and the Paleogene Lanliao fault activity has a strong impact, with obvious segmentation characteristics, resulting in the existence of multiple sedimentary centers in Dongpu depression, thus making the velocity structure in the Dongpu depression present non-uniformity. 4)The characteristics of the Lanliao fault in the middle-north section of the Dongpu depression are shown as an SEE trend, and the dip angle of the Lanliao fault in the north section is significantly steeper, indicating that there are differences in the activity characteristics of Lanliao fault in the study area. The Shijiazhuang-Mazhai-Liuta fault is a branch fault of the Changyuan fault extending northward, with a strike of NNE and a dip of E or SEE. From the velocity distribution feature image, it can be seen that it is significantly different in the north-central section of the Dongpu depression. From the velocity distribution image, it can be seen that it is significantly different in the north-central section of the Dongpu depression, with a gradual steep dip from south to north, and then gradually slowing down. This feature is consistent with the different structural characteristics of each branch fault of the Changyuan fault at a different section.

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