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    ZHENG Wen-jun, WANG Qing-liang, YUAN Dao-yang, ZHANG Dong-li, ZHANG Zhu-qi, ZHANG Yi-peng
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (2): 245-270.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.001
    Abstract438)   HTML    PDF(pc) (5483KB)(672)       Save
    The hypothesis that strong earthquakes in China mainland are controlled by the movement and interaction of active-tectonic blocks was advanced by Chinese scientists, with the remarkable ability to encompass geological and geophysical observations. Application of the active-tectonic block concept can illustrate 6 active-tectonic block regions and 22 active-tectonic blocks in mainland China and its neighboring regions. Systems of active-tectonic block boundaries are characterized by a zone of decades or hundreds of strong earthquakes. One of the greatest strengths of the modern active-tectonic block hypothesis is its ability to explain the origin of virtually all the M8 and 80% M7 earthquakes on the main continent in eastern Asia. In other words, active-tectonic block boundary stands in strong causal interrelation with recurrence behaviors of strong earthquakes and thus, it is possible to predict an earthquake occurrence in principle. After nearly two decades of development and improvement, the active-tectonic block hypothesis has established its theoretical foundation for the active tectonics and earthquake prediction, and is promoting the transition from probabilistic prediction to physical prediction of strong earthquakes. The active-tectonic block concept was tested by application to a well-documented, high-frequent earthquake area, and was found to be an effective way of describing and interpreting the focal mechanism and seismogenic environment, but there are still many problems existing in the active-tectonic block hypothesis, which confronts with rigorous challenges. Future progress will continue to be heavily dependent on the high-precision synthetic seismogram, especially of critical poorly documented settings. It is well known that strong earthquakes occur anywhere in the interactions among the active-tectonic block boundaries where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy driving fault propagation, and then releasing the stored energy. Therefore, future studies will focus on the mechanism and forecast of the strong earthquake activity in the active-tectonic block boundary zone, with fault activity within the active-tectonic block boundary zone, quantifying current crustal strain status, upper crust and deep lithosphere coupling relation, strong earthquake-generating process and its precursory variation mechanism in seismic geophysical model as the main research contents, which are the key issues regarding deepening the theory of active-tectonic block and developing continental tectonics and dynamics in the modern earth science.
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    SONG Xiang-hui, WANG Shuai-jun, PAN Su-zhen, SONG Jia-jia
    SEISMOLOGY AND EGOLOGY    2021, 43 (4): 757-770.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.04.002
    Abstract525)   HTML194)    PDF(pc) (5271KB)(646)       Save

    On May 22, 2021, an MS7.4 earthquake occurred in the Madoi area of Banyan Har block, with a focal depth of about 8km. The seismogenic fault is deduced as the Jiangcuo Fault, a branch of the east Kunlun strike-slip fault. Different with previous strong earthquakes which located at the boundary faults around the Bayan Har block, the Madoi MS7.4 earthquake occurred inside the block and about 70km away from the boundary fault. Furthermore, there is a contradiction between the small strike-slip component of the seismogenic fault and the large earthquake magnitude. The above phenomena indicate that the Madoi earthquake may have special seismotectonic background and seismogenesis. Strong earthquakes in Tibetan plateau are always closely related to the deep crustal structure and dynamic process. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the crustal structure and the distribution of deep faults in the Madoi area in order to reveal the deep tectonic background and genesis of the Madoi MS7.4 earthquake. To research the deep seismotectonic environments of the MS7.4 Madoi earthquake, we reinterpret the deep seismic sounding(DSS)results in Madoi area. The DSS profile reveals fine crustal structure beneath the Madoi area, and divides the crust into 3 crustal layers. From the crustal velocity structure of the Madoi and adjacent area, we found the generation of the Madoi earthquake is closely connected with the deep structure and crustal medium. Through analysis on the velocity structures, we get the following understanding: 1)There is an interface in the upper crust of the Madoi area, which represents the velocity changing from 5.8km/s to 5.6km/s and divides the upper crust into two layers. The upper layer is composed of high velocity structure, indicating a brittle medium environment, while the lower layer consists of low velocity zone and provides the strain accumulation condition for the Madoi earthquake. In addition, the transition between local high velocity zone(HVZ)and the normal crust in the focal area provides an ideal medium environment for earthquake preparation. 2)A wedge-shaped low velocity zone(LVZ)exists in the lower crust south of Madoi, which provides an environment for the movement of weak materials from the SW to NE direction. However, the high-velocity lower crust beneath Madoi area resists the crustal flow and thus transforms the horizontal movement to vertical upwelling, resulting in the stress concentration of the upper crust beneath Madoi area, which may provide dynamic for the preparation of the Madoi MS7.4 earthquake. 3)The Jiangcuo Fault merges into the East Kunlun Fault in the deep crust, forming a reverse thrust fault structural style dominated by the East Kunlun strike-slip fault. As a branch of the East Kunlun Fault, the strike slip of the Jiangcuo Fault is the adjustment results of strain and movement of the East Kunlun Fault. Moreover, the Jiangcuo Fault and adjacent faults constitute the horsetail-shaped fault zone, combined with the imbricated thrust fault zone profile, reflecting the compressive stress of Modoi area that facilitates the strain concentration. Therefore the occurrence of the Madoi earthquake is related to the left-lateral strike-slip movement of the East Kunlun Fault and the special imbricated thrust fault assemblages. On the other hand, the upwelling of the lower crustal flow and the corresponding sliding of the upper crust may be related with the occurrence of the Madoi earthquake. In conclusion, the Madoi MS7.4 earthquake is closely related to the ideal medium environment of the upper crust, the lower crustal flow and vertical upwelling beneath Madoi area, as well as the left-lateral strike-slip of the East Kunlun Fault.

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    LI Zhi-min, LI Wen-qiao, LI Tao, XU Yue-ren, SU Peng, GUO Peng, SUN Hao-yue, HA Guang-hao, CHEN Gui-hua, YUAN Zhao-de, LI Zhong-wu, LI Xin, YANG Li-chen, MA Zhen, YAO Sheng-hai, XIONG Ren-wei, ZHANG Yan-bo, GAI Hai-long, YIN Xiang, XU Wei-yang, DONG Jin-yuan
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2021, 43 (3): 722-737.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.03.016
    Abstract815)   HTML    PDF(pc) (18089KB)(560)       Save
    At 02:04 a.m. on May 22, 2021, a MS7.4 earthquake occurred in the Maduo County, Qinghai Province, China. Its epicenter is located within the Bayan Har block in the north-central Tibetan plateau, approximately 70km south of the eastern Kunlun fault system that defines the northern boundary of the block. In order to constrain the seismogenic fault and characterize the co-seismic surface ruptures of this earthquake, field investigations were conducted immediately after the earthquake, combined with analyses of the focal parameters, aftershock distribution, and InSAR inversion of this earthquake.
    This preliminary study finds that the seismogenic fault of the Maduo MS7.4 earthquake is the Jiangcuo segment of the Kunlunshankou-Jiangcuo Fault, which is an active NW-striking and left-lateral strike-slip fault. The total length of the co-seismic surface ruptures is approximately 160km. Multiple rupture patterns exist, mainly including linear shear fractures, obliquely distributed tensional and tensional-shear fractures, pressure ridges, and pull-apart basins. The earthquake also induced a large number of liquefaction structures and landslides in valleys and marshlands.
    Based on strike variation and along-strike discontinuity due to the development of step-overs, the coseismic surface rupture zone can be subdivided into four segments, namely the Elinghu South, Huanghexiang, Dongcaoarlong, and Changmahexiang segments. The surface ruptures are quite continuous and prominent along the Elinghu south segment, western portion of the Huanghexiang segment, central portion of the Dongcaoarlong segment, and the Huanghexiang segment. Comparatively, coseismic surface ruptures of other portions are discontinuous. The coseismic strike-slip displacement is roughly determined to be 1~2m based on the displaced gullies, trails, and the width of cracks at releasing step-overs.
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    ZHANG Chi, LI Zhi-min, REN Zhi-kun, LIU Jin-rui, ZHANG Zhi-liang, WU Deng-yun
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2022, 44 (1): 1-19.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2022.01.001
    Abstract587)   HTML103)    PDF(pc) (22131KB)(560)       Save

    Due to the collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate, the Tibetan plateau has experienced violent uplift and strong intraplate deformation inside the plateau, which has a great impact on the tectonic evolution of the surrounding areas. The northeastern edge of the Tibetan plateau is the forefront of the northeastward expansion of the Tibetan plateau, which is the ideal place to study the deformation of the plateau as well as the far-field deformation associated with continental collision between the Eurasia and India plates. In recent years, scholars have gained a certain understanding of the characteristics of late Quaternary tectonic activity in the northeast margin of Tibetan plateau. Within the northeastern margin of Tibetan plateau, there are two major fault systems: One is the near EW-trending left-lateral strike-slip fault system, including the Kunlun, Haiyuan and western Qinling faults, the other one is the NNW-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault system, including the Elashan and Riyueshan faults. They are sub-parallel to each other. Since the Riyueshan Fault is one of the major right-lateral strike-slip faults in the northeastern margin of Tibetan plateau, its activity is of great significance for understanding the plateau expansion. Previous studies mainly focused on its northern part which is believed to be active during Holocene. However, its southern part is believed to be active during late Pleistocene, but not active since Holocene. Therefore, there are little studies focusing on the late Quaternary activities of the southern part of the Riyueshan Fault. Hence, our understanding about the characteristics of the late Quaternary activity is insufficient. During our preliminary field survey along the southern Riyueshan Fault, we found distinct deformation of Holocene landforms, such as the young alluvial fan, terrace risers and channels, which indicate its late Quaternary activity. In this study, we firstly analyze the fault geometry of the southern Riyueshan Fault based on high-resolution Superview-1 remote sensing images and carry out field verification. Based on fault geometry characteristics, fault strike orientation etc., we divided the southern Riyueshan Fault into two segments from north to south. One is the Guide segment(generally trending in NW 20°)and the other is the Duohelmao segment(generally striking in NS). During our field investigation, we found two typical sites for slip rate studies, the Rixiaolongwa site on the Guide segment and the Niemari site on the Duohemao segment, respectively. We collected high-resolution images using UAV, and then generated high-resolution DEM of these two sites. By measuring the offsets and corresponding dating results of multi-level terrace risers, we obtained the displacements of the three-level and two-level terraces at Rixiaolongwa and Niemari site, respectively. Then we collected the OSL and 14C samples on different terrace risers to constrain the age of each terrace. In the Rixiaolongwa area, the corresponding offsets of T1, T2 and T3 terraces are(26.3±3.1)m, (32.7±7.1)m and(38.6±8)m, and the age sequence is(7840±30)a BP, (9 350~10 700)a BP and(11.9±1.3)ka BP, respectively. In the Nimari area, the corresponding offsets of T1 and T2 terraces are(6.3±0.7)m and(9.7±1.7)m, and the ages are(2 860±30)a BP and(3 460±30)a BP, respectively. By applying Monte Carlo method, we obtained the corresponding slip rates of(3.37+0.55/-0.68)mm/a and(2.69+0.41/-0.38)mm/a for the Guide and Duohemao segment, which is comparable to the previously suggested slip rate of northern Riyueshan Fault. Finally, we discussed the role of the Riyueshan Fault in the tectonic deformation of northeastern Tibetan plateau.

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    MA Jun, ZHOU Ben-gang, WANG Ming-ming, AN Li-ke
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (5): 1021-1038.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.05.001
    Abstract353)   HTML    PDF(pc) (15031KB)(547)       Save
    Xianshuihe Fault is an active fault which originated from the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and formed by the orogenic events in Songpang-Ganzi area. The origin of Xianshuihe Fault is discovered in the NW of Ganzi, then it extends to the SE, passing through Luhuo, Daofu, Qianning, Kangding, Luding, Moxi and disappears after passing through Shimian. Based on previous studies, Xianshihe Fault is a sinistral strike-slip fault. According to GPS and InSAR data, the horizontal component of average slip rate for Xianshuihe Fault is approximately 7.5~16.7mm/a. As a crucial member of the regional earthquake zone, Xianshuihe Fault separates Sichuan-Yunnan block and Bayankala block. More importantly, Xianshuihe Fault is responsible for a great number of large magnitude earthquakes especially in the Qianning-Kangding segment, a segment of Xianshuihe Fault which consists of three branches. From east to west, they are Yalahe Fault, Selaha Fault and Zheduotang Fault which are all active since Holocene. Yalahe Fault is responsible for a M7 earthquake that occurred around 1700AD. Selaha Fault is responsible for another M7 earthquake which occurred around 1725AD. Around 1955AD, a M7.5 earthquake occurred which was related to Zheduotang Fault.
    According to the 1:50k Xianshihe Active Faults Map(1995) and relevant researches, it is discovered that, from north to south, the Holocene active Zheduotang segment starts from Kangding airport to Zheduotang village. The total length of Zheduotang segment is around 30km which includes the surface rupture zone of the 1955 M7.5 earthquake. Due to the absence of researches, the northern part of the Zheduotang Fault, which is to the north of the Kangding airport, remains unstudied. Based on satellite image, we discovered that there are signs of faults to the north of Kangding airport. Therefore, we selected four sites to carry out field investigations and trench analysis. The first site is to the NW of the Duoriagamo village. Based on satellite image and DEM data, many typical faulted geomorphologic features are discovered. To the NW of this site, both the fan and the terrace are offset. By analyzing the DEM data, the offset of T1 terrace is around 7.8m and the offset of Fan1 is around 15.6m. To the SE of this site, the fan is also offset by sinistral movement which has an offset value of 21.7m. The second site is to the NW of the Muyazuqing school where 2.6m of sinistral offset between the fan and the T1 terrace are measured. To the SE of this site, obvious offset of fan and floodplain are observed which both have sinistral offset of 2.5m. The third site is to the south of first Duoriagamo village. The fault here shows two parallel branches. The fourth site is near the Tonglilongba and there are 37.5m of horizontal offset of the fan.
    Based on trench analysis, 17 stratigraphic units are defined from which carbon samples are acquired for geochronological analysis. By constraining the age of each stratigraphic unit, the age of four deformation events are defined. Event 1 is the youngest which occurred between 5 821~3 148a BP. Event 2 occurred between 13 060~10 745a BP, Event 3 occurred between 13 687~11 420a BP and Event 4 occurred between 41 443~13 715a BP. According to the integration results of our analysis, the location of northwestern segment of Zheduotang Fault is defined. It is discovered that, the NW segment of Zheduotang Fault is located between the Kangding airport and Duoriagamo village with a total length of 15km. The trace of Zheduotang Fault is also defined. From north to south, Zheduotang Fault passes through Duoriagamo village, Tonglilongba, Kangding airport, Zheduoshan nek, Ertaizidaoban and disappears near Zheduotang village. Moreover, after Holocene, the Zheduotang Fault is dominated sinistral slip movement along with minor vertical component. Different from previous researches, we believe that the Holocene active Zheduotang segment extends 15km further to the NW. This discovery provides some basis for perfecting the plane geometric images of the three active faults in Qianning-Kangding segment of Xianshuihe fault zone, such as Zheduotang Fault, Selaha Fault and Yalahe Fault, and is of great significance for understanding the strain distribution and strong earthquake rupture mode of each branch fault in Qianning-Kangding segment of Xianshuihe fault zone.
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    SHAO Zhi-gang, FENG Wei, WANG Peng, YIN Xiao-fei
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (2): 271-282.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.002
    Abstract446)   HTML    PDF(pc) (2034KB)(546)       Save
    More than 80 percent of strong earthquakes(M≥7.0)occur in active-tectonic block boundaries in mainland China, and 95 percent of strong earthquake disasters also occur in these boundaries. In recent years, all strong earthquakes(M≥7.0)happened in active-tectonic block boundaries. For instance, 8 strong earthquakes(M≥7.0)occurred on the eastern, western, southern and northern boundaries of the Bayan Har block since 1997. In order to carry out the earthquake prediction research better, especially for the long-term earthquake prediction, the active-tectonic block boundaries have gradually become the key research objects of seismo-geology, geophysics, geodesy and other disciplines. This paper reviews the research results related to seismic activities in mainland China, as well as the main existing recognitions and problems as follows: 1)Most studies on seismic activities in active-tectonic block boundaries still remain at the statistical analysis level at present. However, the analysis of their working foundations or actual working conditions can help investigate deeply the seismic activities in the active-tectonic block boundaries; 2)Seismic strain release rates are determined by tectonic movement rates in active-tectonic block boundaries. Analysis of relations between seismic strain release rates and tectonic movement rates in mainland China shows that the tectonic movement rates in active-tectonic block boundaries of the eastern region are relatively slow, and the seismic strain release rates are with the smaller values too; the tectonic movement rates in active-tectonic block boundaries of the western region reveal higher values, and their seismic strain rates are larger than that of the eastern region. Earthquake recurrence periods of all 26 active-tectonic block boundaries are presented, and the reciprocals of recurrence periods represent high and low frequency of seismic activities. The research results point out that the tectonic movement rates and the reciprocals of recurrence periods for most faults in active-tectonic block boundaries exhibit linear relations. But due to the complexities of fault systems in active tectonic block boundaries, several faults obviously deviate from the linear relationship, and the relations between average earthquake recurrence periods and tectonic movement rates show larger uncertainties. The major reason is attributed to the differences existing in the results of the current earthquake recurrence studies. Furthermore, faults in active-tectonic boundaries exhibit complexities in many aspects, including different movement rates among various segments of the same fault and a certain active-tectonic block boundary contains some parallel faults with the same earthquake magnitude level. Consequently, complexities of these fault systems need to be further explored; 3)seismic activity processes in active-tectonic block boundaries present obvious regional characteristics. Active-tectonic block boundaries of the eastern mainland China except the western edge of Ordos block possess clustering features which indicate that due to the relatively low rate of crustal deformation in these areas, a long-time span is needed for fault stress-strain accumulation to show earthquake cluster activities. In addition, active-tectonic block boundaries in specific areas with low fault stress-strain accumulation rates also show seismic clustering properties, such as the clustering characteristics of strong seismic activities in Longmenshan fault zone, where a series of strong earthquakes have occurred successively, including the 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan, the 2013 M7.0 Lushan and the 2017 M7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquakes. The north central regions of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, regarded as the second-grade active-tectonic block boundaries, are the concentration areas of large-scale strike-slip faults in mainland China, and most of seismicity sequences show quasi-period features. Besides, most regions around the first-grade active-tectonic block boundary of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau display Poisson seismic processes. On one hand, it is still necessary to investigate the physical mechanisms and dynamics of regional structures, on the other hand, most of the active-tectonic block boundaries can be considered as fault systems. However, seismic activities involved in fault systems have the characteristic of in situ recurrence of strong earthquakes in main fault segments, the possibilities of cascading rupturing for adjacent fault segments, and space-time evolution characteristics of strong earthquakes in fault systems. 4)The dynamic environment of strong earthquakes in mainland China is characterized by “layering vertically and blocking horizontally”. With the progresses in the studies of geophysics, geochemistry, geodesy, seismology and geology, the physical models of different time/space scales have guiding significance for the interpretations of preparation and occurrence of continental strong earthquakes under the active-tectonic block frame. However, since the movement and deformation of the active-tectonic blocks contain not only the rigid motion and the horizontal differences of physical properties of crust-mantle medium are universal, there is still need for improving the understanding of the dynamic processes of continental strong earthquakes. So it is necessary to conduct in-depth studies on the physical mechanism of strong earthquake preparation process under the framework of active-tectonic block theory and establish various foundation models which are similar to seismic source physical models in California of the United States, and then provide technological scientific support for earthquake prevention and disaster mitigation. Through all kinds of studies of the physical mechanisms for space-time evolution of continental strong earthquakes, it can not only promote the transition of the study of seismic activities from statistics to physics, but also persistently push the development of active-tectonic block theory.
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    LI Chuan-you, ZHANG Jin-yu, WANG Wei, SUN Kai, SHAN Xin-jian
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2021, 43 (3): 706-721.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.03.015
    Abstract1003)   HTML    PDF(pc) (16261KB)(525)       Save
    The May 21, 2021 Yangbi MS6.4 earthquake occurred at the western boundary of the Chuandian tectonic block in southeast Tibetan plateau. The structural background is complex, with multiple active faults distributed around the epicenter area. Focal mechanism and seismic waveform inversion reveal that this earthquake is right-lateral strike-slip type with a NW-trending rupture plane. This accords with the strike and motion directions of the Weixi-Qiaohou and Red River faults along the western boundary of the Chuandian block.
    We made a careful field investigation along the Weixi-Qiaohou Fault and around the epicenter area, and did not find any obvious earthquake surface rupture. But we observed a NW-trending ground fissure zone near the epicenter area to the west of the Yangbi County. This zone is divided into two sections, the Yangkechang-Paoshuitian section in the northwest and the Xiquewo-Shahe section in the southwest. These sections have a length of 2.5~3km and 3~3.5km, respectively, and are separated by a ~6km gap. They are characterized by NW-trending ground fissures with a width of several meters to tens meters. The formation of these fissures is inferred to be related to the tectonic movement under the ground, and the fissures have the following features: 1)they are not affected by the topography and cut the slope and range upward; 2)they are continuous and concentrated in a zone with a strike of NW 310°~320°, which is consistent with the belt of aftershocks and differs from the gravity fissures that usually have no regular strikes; 3)they usually have a plane dipping towards upslope(southwest), opposite to the valley; 4)they present shear property, not tensional. This zone thus is interpreted to be the surficial expression of the seismogenic fault of the Yangbi MS6.4 earthquake.
    Moreover, satellite image and field observation suggest that a~30km long linear structure with a NW strike traverses the epicenter area, which may suggest an undiscovered fault. Relocation of small earthquakes shows that the aftershocks are concentrated in a NW-trending belt that is consistent with the linear structure. Furthermore, the fissure zone lies in the northeast side of the aftershock belt, which suggests that the earthquake fault dips SW. Such a dip direction coincides with that of the observed fissure plane, and also agrees with the results from the focal mechanism and InSAR inversion. Both the focal mechanism and the waveform inversion result suggest that the Yangbi earthquake is a right-lateral strike-slip type, which is consistent with the type of the observed ground fissures. No displacement is observed on the fissures, with is also consistent with the InSAR inversion results that suggest the rupture did not break the surface. In addition, there is no coseismic deformation observed along the Weixi-Qiaohou Fault, which may indicate this fault did not move during this earthquake.
    Based on our field investigation, in combination with the focal mechanism, aftershock distribution, and InSAR and GNSS inversion results, the seismogenic fault for this Yangbi MS6.4 earthquake is believed to be a NW-trending(310°~320°)fault with a length of~30km, named as the Yangkechang-Shahe Fault. According to the location, size, and motion of the fault, it is suggested that the Yangkechang-Shahe Fault is a secondary fault of the Weixi-Qiaohou fault system. This fault has a slightly SW-dipping plane, and is dominated by right-lateral strike-slip motion, which may be a younger fault developed during the westward expansion of the western boundary of the Chuandian block.
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    LIANG Ming-jian, CHEN Li-chun, RAN Yong-kang, LI Yan-bao, WANG Dong, GAO Shuai-po, HAN Ming-ming, ZENG Di
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (2): 513-525.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.016
    Abstract504)   HTML    PDF(pc) (10730KB)(491)       Save
    Complex geometrical structures on strike-slip faults would likely affect fault behavior such as strain accumulation and distribution, seismic rupture process, etc. The Xianshuihe Fault has been considered to be a Holocene active strike-slip fault with a high horizontal slip rate along the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. During the past 300 years, the Xianshuihe Fault produced 8 earthquakes with magnitude≥7 along the whole fault and showed strong activities of large earthquakes. Taking the Huiyuansi Basin as a structure boundary, the northwestern and southeastern segments of the Xianshuihe Fault show different characteristics. The northwestern segment, consisting of the Luhuo, Daofu and Qianning sections, shows a left-stepping en echelon pattern by simple fault strands. However, the southeastern segment(Huiyuansi-Kangding segment)has a complex structure and is divided into three sub-faults: the Yalahe, Selaha and Zheduotang Faults. To the south of Kangding County, the Moxi segment of the Xianshuihe Fault shows a simple structure. The previous studies suggest that the three sub-faults(the Yalahe, Selaha and Zheduotang Faults of the Huiyuansi-Kangding segment)unevenly distribute the strain of the northwestern segment of the Xianshuihe Fault. However, the disagreement of the new activity of the Yalahe Fault limits the understanding of the strain distribution model of the Huiyuansi-Kangding segment. Most scholars believed that the Yalahe Fault is a Holocene active fault. However, Zhang et al.(2017)used low-temperature thermochronology to study the cooling history of the Gongga rock mass, and suggested that the Yalahe Fault is now inactive and the latest activity of the Xianshuihe Fault has moved westward over the Selaha Fault. The Yalahe Fault is the only segment of the Xianshuihe Fault that lacks records of the strong historical earthquakes. Moreover, the Yalahe Fault is located in the alpine valley area, and the previous traffic conditions were very bad. Thus, the previous research on fault activity of the fault relied mainly on the interpretation of remote sensing, and the uncertainty was relatively large. Through remote sensing and field investigation, we found the geological and geomorphological evidence for Holocene activity of the Yalahe Fault. Moreover, we found a well-preserved seismic surface rupture zone with a length of about 10km near the Yariacuo and the co-seismic offsets of the earthquake are about 2.5~3.5m. In addition, we also advance the new active fault track of the Yalahe Fault to Yala Town near Kangding County. In Wangmu and Yala Town, we found the geological evidence for the latest fault activity that the Holocene alluvial fans were dislocated by the fault. These evidences suggest that the Yalahe Fault is a Holocene active fault, and has the seismogenic tectonic condition to produce a large earthquake, just like the Selaha and Zheduotang Faults. These also provide seismic geological evidence for the strain distribution model of the Kangding-Huiyuansi segment of the Xianshuihe Fault.
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    LI Zhen-yue, WAN Yong-ge, JIN Zhi-tong, YANG Fan, HU Xiao-hui, LI Ze-xiao
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (5): 1091-1108.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.05.005
    Abstract410)   HTML    PDF(pc) (4980KB)(482)       Save
    Based on the rupture model of Mainling M6.9 earthquake in Tibet on November 18, 2017, the spatial distribution of static Coulomb failure stress change at different depths are calculated respectively according to two different receiving fault selection schemes. The one scheme is that we set the parameters of receiving fault at different position to be consistent with the main shock; The other scheme is on the assumption that fault's orientation is randomly distributed under the ground, and we select the receiving fault which is most prone to slide under the influence of coseismic stress field produced by main shock. Therefore, the geometrical orientation of receiving fault will vary with space. According to the above two results of static Coulomb failure stress change, we discussed the static Coulomb stress influence produced by the main shock to short-term aftershocks and the Medog M6.3 earthquake in Tibet on April 24, 2019, respectively. The result shows that: 1)When the parameters of receiving fault are same with the main shock, the proportion of aftershocks in the positive zone of static Coulomb failure stress change is small at each depth. The focal mechanisms of aftershocks in the positive zone of static coulomb fracture stress are deemed similar to the main shock. We thought that they are motivated by the continuous rupture of the main shock. 2)Most of the aftershocks are in the negative zone of static Coulomb failure stress change at each depth. We inferred that this phenomenon which may be on account of the focal mechanisms of these aftershocks is quite different with the main shock. From the result of receiving fault to choose the most prone to slide under the coseismic stress field produced by main shock, we can clearly see that all the aftershocks are within the zone of static Coulomb failure stress change greater than the trigger threshold of 0.01MPa at different depths. It indicates that all the aftershocks are likely to be triggered. It was speculated that the aftershocks in the negative zone of static Coulomb failure stress change occurred in the crushed zone caused by violent rupture of the main shock. There are countless cracks in the crushed zone, and the orientation of these cracks is abundant. Perhaps, because most aftershocks occurred on these various cracks, their focal mechanisms are quite different from the main shock. The value of elastic constants will be reduced significantly in the crushed zone. All the results in this paper also indicate that considering the elastic constants difference between in and out of the source region is beneficial to accurately estimate the static Coulomb stress influence between earthquakes in the source region. 3)Different institutes and authors used different data and methods to get several different focal mechanisms of the Medog earthquake. According to these results, we calculated a central focal mechanism solution, which has a minimum difference with these focal mechanisms. On the basis of this central focal mechanism solution, the static Coulomb stress influence of the Mainling earthquake to the Medog earthquake is calculated quantitatively. Result indicates that the magnitude of static Coulomb failure stress change generated by the Mainling earthquake is quite small on both two nodal planes of the central focal mechanism solution of the Medog earthquake, this means that the Medog earthquake is independent of the Mainling earthquake.
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    ZHANG Bo, TIAN Qin-jian, WANG Ai-guo, LI Wen-qiao, XU Yue-ren, GAO Ze-min
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2021, 43 (1): 72-91.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.01.005
    Abstract399)   HTML    PDF(pc) (24979KB)(472)       Save
    Located in the intervening zone between Tibetan plateau and surrounding blocks, the Lintan-Dangchang Fault(LDF)is characterized by north-protruding arc-shape, complex structures and intense fault activity. Quantitative studies on its new activity play a key role in searching the seismogenic mechanism, building regional tectonic model and understanding the tectonic interaction between Tibetan plateau and surrounding blocks. The LDF has strong neotectonic activities, and moderate-strong earthquakes occur frequently(three M6~7 earthquakes occurred in the past 500 years, including the July 22nd, 2013, Minxian-Zhangxian MS6.6 earthquake), but the new activity of the fault is poorly known, the geological and geomorphological evidence of the Holocene activity has not been reported yet. Based on remote sensing interpretation and macro-landform analysis, this paper studies the long-term performance of LDF. Based on the study of fault activity, unmanned aircraft vehicle photogrammetry and differential GPS, radiocarbon dating, etc., the latest activity of LDF is quantitatively studied. Then the research results, historical strong earthquakes and small earthquake distribution are comprehensively analyzed for studying the seismogenic mechanism and constructing regional tectonic models. The results are as follows: Firstly, the fault geometry is complex and there are many branch faults. According to the convergence degree of the fault trace and the fault-controlled macroscopic topography, the LDF is divided into three segments: the west, the middle and the east. The west segment contains two fault branches(the south and the north)and the south Hezuo Fault. The south branch of the west segment mainly dominates the Jicang Neogene Basin, and the south Hezuo Fault controls the south boundary of Hezuo Basin. The middle segment has more convergent and stable trace, consisting of the main fault and south Hezuo Fault, and these faults separate the main planation surface of the Tibetan plateau and Lintan Basin surface geologically and geomorphologically. The fault traces in the east segment are sparsely distributed, and the terrain is characterized by hundreds of meters of uplifts. The branch faults include the main fault, Hetuo Fault, Muzhailing Fault and Bolinkou Fault, each controlling differential topography. Secondly, the motion property of the LDF is mainly left-lateral strike-slip, with a relative smaller portion of vertical slip. The left-lateral strike-slip offset the Taohe River and its tributaries, gullies and ridges synchronously, and the maximum left-lateral displacement of the tributary of Taohe River can reach 3km. Meanwhile, the pull-apart basins and push-up ridges associated with the left-lateral fault slip are also developed in the fault zone. The performance of vertical slip includes tilting of the main planation surface, vertical offsets of the boundary and interior of Neogene basin and hundred meter-scale differential topography. The vertical offset of the Neogene is 300~500m. Thirdly, one fault profile was newly discovered in Gongqia Village, revealing a complete sequence of pre-earthquake-coseismic-postseismic deposition, and this event was constrained by the radiocarbon ages of pre-earthquake and post-earthquake deposition. The event was constrained to be 2090~7745aBP(confidence 2σ), which for the first time confirmed the Holocene activity of the fault. Fourthly, a gully with two terraces at least on the west side of Zhuangzi Village in the east segment of the main fault retains a typical faulted landform. The T2/T1 terrace riser of the gully has a left-handed dislocation of 6.3~11.8m, and the scarp height on terrace T2 is 0.4~0.7m, the radiocarbon age of the terrace T2 is7170~7310aBP, so the derived left-lateral strike-slip rate since the early Holocene in the east segment of the main fault is 0.86~1.65mm/a, and the vertical slip rate is 0.05~0.10mm/a. The derived slip rates are in line with the regional tectonic model proposed by the predecessors, so the LDF plays an important role in the internal deformation of the West Qinling. The clockwise rotation of the middle to east segments of the LDF acts as an obstacle to the left-lateral strike-slip motion, which inevitably leads to the redistribution and rapid release of stress, so earthquakes in the middle-east segment of the LDF are unusually frequent.
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    LIANG Ming-jian, YANG Yao, DU Fang, GONG Yue, SUN Wei, ZHAO Min, HE Qiang
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (3): 703-714.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.03.011
    Abstract390)   HTML    PDF(pc) (10839KB)(460)       Save
    Bayan Hara Block is one of the most representative active blocks resulting from the lateral extrusion of Tibet Plateau since the Cenozoic. Its southern and northern boundary faults are characterized by typical strike-slip shear deformation. Its eastern boundary is blocked by the Yangze block and its horizontal movement is transformed into the vertical movement of the Longmen Shan tectonic belt, leading to the uplift of the Longmen Shan Mountains and forming a grand geomorphic barrier on the eastern margin of the Tibet Plateau. A series of large earthquakes occurred along the boundary faults of the Bayan Hara Block in the past twenty years, which have attracted attention of many scholars. At present, the related studies of active tectonics on Bayan Hara Block are mainly concentrated on the boundary faults, such as Yushu-Ganzi-Xianshuihe Fault, East Kunlun Fault and Longmen Shan Fault. However, there are also some large faults inside the block, which not only have late Quaternary activity, but also have tectonic conditions to produce strong earthquake. These faults divide the Bayan Hara Block into some secondary blocks, and may play important roles in the kinematics and dynamics mechanism of the Bayan Hara Block, or even the eastern margin of the Tibet Plateau. The Dari Fault is one of the left-lateral strike-slip faults in the Bayan Hara Block. The Dari Fault starts at the eastern pass of the Kunlun Mountains, extends eastward through the south of Yalazela, Yeniugou and Keshoutan, the fault strike turns to NNE direction at Angcanggou, then turns to NE direction again at Moba town, Qinghai Province, and the fault ends near Nanmuda town, Sichuan Province, with a total length of more than 500km. The fault has been considered to be a late Quaternary active fault and the 1947 M73/4 Dari earthquake was produced by its middle segment. But studies on the late Quaternary activity of the Dari Fault are still weak. The previous research mainly focused on the investigation of the surface rupture and damages of the 1947 M73/4 Dari earthquake. However, there were different opinions about the scale of the M73/4 earthquake surface rupture zone. Dai Hua-guang(1983)thought that the surface rupture of the earthquake was about 150km long, but Qinghai Earthquake Agency(1984)believed that the length of surface rupture zone was only 58km. Based on interpretation of high-resolution images and field investigations, in this paper, we studied the late Quaternary activity of the Dari Fault and the surface rupture zone of the 1947 Dari earthquake. Late Quaternary activity in the central segment of the Dari Fault is particularly significant. A series of linear tectonic landforms, such as fault trough valley, fault scarps, fault springs and gully offsets, etc. are developed along the Dari Fault. And the surface rupture zone of the 1947 Dari earthquake is still relatively well preserved. We conducted a follow-up field investigation for the surface rupture zone of the 1947 Dari earthquake and found that the surface rupture related to the Dari earthquake starts at Longgen village in Moba town, and ends near the northwest of the Yilonggounao in Jianshe town, with a length of about 70km. The surface rupture is primarily characterized by scarps, compressional ridges, pull-apart basins, landslides, cleavage, and the coseismic offset is about 2~4m determined by a series of offset gullies. The surface rupture zone extends to the northwest of Yilonggounao and becomes ambiguous. It is mainly characterized by a series of linear fault springs along the surface rupture zone. Therefore, we suggest that the surface rupture zone of the 1947 Dari earthquake ends at the northwest of Yilonggounao. In summary, the central segment of the Dari Fault can be characterized by strong late Quaternary activity, and the surface rupture zone of the 1947 Dari earthquake is about 70km long.
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    HUA Jun, ZHAO De-zheng, SHAN Xin-jian, QU Chun-yan, ZHANG Ying-feng, GONG Wen-yu, WANG Zhen-jie, LI Cheng-long, LI Yan-chuan, ZHAO Lei, CHEN Han, FAN Xiao-ran, WANG Shao-jun
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2021, 43 (3): 677-691.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.03.013
    Abstract683)   HTML    PDF(pc) (9842KB)(447)       Save
    InSAR coseismic deformation fields caused by the Maduo MW7.3 earthquake occurring on May 22, 2021 were generated using the C-band Sentinel-1A/B SAR images with D-InSAR technology. The spatial characteristics, magnitude of coseismic deformation and segmentation of the seismogenic fault were analyzed. The surface rupture trace was depicted clearly by InSAR observations. In addition, the coseismic slip distribution inversion was carried out constrained by both ascending and descending InSAR deformation fields and relocated aftershocks to understand the characteristics of deep fault slip and geometry of the seismogenic fault. The regional stress disturbance was analyzed based on coseismic Coulomb stress change. The results show that the Maduo MW7.3 earthquake occurred on a secondary fault within the Bayan Har block which is almost parallel to the main fault trace of the Kunlun Fault. According to field investigation, geological data and InSAR surface rupture traces, the seismogenic fault is confirmed to be the Kunlunshankou-Jiangcuo Fault. The rupture length of seismogenic fault is estimated to be~210km. The NWW direction is followed by the overall displacement field, which indicates a left-lateral strike-slip movement of seismogenic fault. The maximum displacement is about 0.9m in LOS direction observed by both ascending and descending InSAR data. The inversion result denotes that the strike of the seismogenic fault is 276°and the dip angle is 80°. The maximum slip is about 6m and the average rake is 4°. The predicted moment magnitude is MW7.45, which is overall consistent with the result of GCMT. An obvious slip-concentrated area is located at the depth of 0~10km. The coseismic Coulomb stress change with the East Kunlun Fault as the receiver fault shows that the Maduo earthquake produced obvious stress increase near the eastern segment of the East Kunlun Fault. Thus the seismic risk increases based on the high interseismic strain rate along this segment, which should receive more attention. In addition, the coseismic Coulomb stress change with the Maduo-Gande Fault as the receiving fault indicates that the Maduo earthquake produced an obvious stress drop near the western part of the Maduo-Gande Fault, which indicates that the Maduo earthquake released the Coulomb stress of the Maduo-Gande Fault, and its seismic risk may be greatly reduced. However, there is a stress loading effect in the intersection area of the Maduo-Gande Fault and the Kunlunshankou-Jiangcuo Fault. Considering that aftershocks of Maduo earthquake will release excess energy, the greater earthquake risk may be reduced.
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    YUAN Dao-yang, FENG Jian-gang, ZHENG Wen-jun, LIU Xing-wang, GE Wei-peng, WANG Wei-tong
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (2): 297-315.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.004
    Abstract511)   HTML    PDF(pc) (6622KB)(428)       Save
    On the basis of summarizing the circulation characteristics and mechanism of earthquakes with magnitude 7 or above in continental China, the spatial-temporal migration characteristics, mechanism and future development trend of earthquakes with magnitude above 7 in Tibetan block area are analyzed comprehensively. The results show that there are temporal clustering and spatial zoning of regional strong earthquakes and large earthquakes in continental China, and they show the characteristics of migration and circulation in time and space. In the past 100a, there are four major earthquake cluster areas that have migrated from west to east and from south to north, i.e. 1)Himalayan seismic belt and Tianshan-Baikal seismic belt; 2)Mid-north to north-south seismic belt in Tibetan block area; 3)North-south seismic belt-periphery of Assam cape; and 4)North China and Sichuan-Yunnan area. The cluster time of each area is about 20a, and a complete cycle time is about 80a. The temporal and spatial images of the migration and circulation of strong earthquakes are consistent with the motion velocity field images obtained through GPS observations in continental China. The mechanism is related to the latest tectonic activity in continental China, which is mainly affected by the continuous compression of the Indian plate to the north on the Eurasian plate, the rotation of the Tibetan plateau around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, and the additional stress field caused by the change of the earth's rotation speed.
        Since 1900AD, the Tibetan block area has experienced three periods of high tides of earthquake activity clusters(also known as earthquake series), among which the Haiyuan-Gulang earthquake series from 1920 to 1937 mainly occurred around the active block boundary structural belt on the periphery of the Tibetan block region, with the largest earthquake occurring on the large active fault zone in the northeastern boundary belt. The Chayu-Dangxiong earthquake series from 1947 to 1976 mainly occurred around the large-scale boundary active faults of Qiangtang block, Bayankala block and eastern Himalayan syntaxis within the Tibetan block area. In the 1995-present Kunlun-Wenchuan earthquake series, 8 earthquakes with MS7.0 or above have occurred on the boundary fault zones of the Bayankala block. Therefore, the Bayankala block has become the main area of large earthquake activity on the Tibetan plateau in the past 20a. The clustering characteristic of this kind of seismic activity shows that in a certain period of time, strong earthquake activity can occur on the boundary fault zone of the same block or closely related blocks driven by a unified dynamic mechanism, reflecting the overall movement characteristics of the block. The migration images of the main active areas of the three earthquake series reflect the current tectonic deformation process of the Tibetan block region, where the tectonic activity is gradually converging inward from the boundary tectonic belt around the block, and the compression uplift and extrusion to the south and east occurs in the plateau. This mechanism of gradual migration and repeated activities from the periphery to the middle can be explained by coupled block movement and continuous deformation model, which conforms to the dynamic model of the active tectonic block hypothesis.
        A comprehensive analysis shows that the Kunlun-Wenchuan earthquake series, which has lasted for more than 20a, is likely to come to an end. In the next 20a, the main active area of the major earthquakes with magnitude 7 on the continental China may migrate to the peripheral boundary zone of the Tibetan block. The focus is on the eastern boundary structural zone, i.e. the generalized north-south seismic belt. At the same time, attention should be paid to the earthquake-prone favorable regions such as the seismic empty sections of the major active faults in the northern Qaidam block boundary zone and other regions. For the northern region of the Tibetan block, the areas where the earthquakes of magnitude 7 or above are most likely to occur in the future will be the boundary structural zones of Qaidam active tectonic block, including Qilian-Haiyuan fault zone, the northern margin fault zone of western Qinling, the eastern Kunlun fault zone and the Altyn Tagh fault zone, etc., as well as the empty zones or empty fault segments with long elapse time of paleo-earthquake or no large historical earthquake rupture in their structural transformation zones. In future work, in-depth research on the seismogenic tectonic environment in the above areas should be strengthened, including fracture geometry, physical properties of media, fracture activity behavior, earthquake recurrence rule, strain accumulation degree, etc., and then targeted strengthening tracking monitoring and earthquake disaster prevention should be carried out.
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    HAO Ming, WANG Qing-liang
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (2): 283-296.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.003
    Abstract420)   HTML    PDF(pc) (3267KB)(427)       Save
    Chinese scientists proposed that large earthquakes that occurred in mainland China are controlled by the movement and deformation of active tectonic blocks. This scientific hypothesis explains zoned phenomenon of seismicity in space. The active tectonic blocks are intense active terranes formed in late Cenozoic and late Quaternary, and the tectonic activity of block boundaries is the intensest. Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS)has advantages of high spatio-temporal resolution, broad coverage, and high accuracy, and is utilized to monitor contemporary crustal deformation. High accuracy and resolution of GNSS velocity field within mainland China and vicinities provided by previous studies clearly demonstrate that different active tectonic blocks behave as different patterns of movement and deformation, and block interaction boundaries have intense tectonic deformation. The paper firstly introduces the GPS networks operated by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China(CMONOC)since 1999, and GNSS data processing methods, including GAMIT, BERNESE and GIPSY/OASIS, and discusses the advantages of using South China block as a regional reference frame for GNSS velocity field, then proposes three strategies of block division, F-test, quasi-accurate detection(QUAD), and clustering analysis. Furthermore, we introduce rigid and non-rigid block motions. Rigid block motion can be denoted by translation and rotation, while non-rigid block motion can be described by rigid motion and internal strain deformation. Internal strain deformation can be divided into uniform and linear strains. We also review the usage of F-test to distinguish whether the block acts as rigid deformation or not. In addition, combining with recent GNSS velocity results, we elaborate the characteristics of present movement of rigid block, such as the South China, Tarim, Ordos, Alashan, and Northeast China, and that of non-rigid block, such as the Tibetan plateau, Tian Shan, and North China plain. Especially, the Tibetan plateau and Tian Shan seem to deform continuously with significant internal deformation. In order to enrich and perfect the active tectonic block hypothesis, we should carefully design dense GNSS networks in inner blocks and block boundaries, optimize utilizing other space geodesy technologies such as InSAR, and strengthen combining study of geodesy, seismogeology and geophysics. Through systematic summary, this paper is very useful to employing GNSS to investigate characteristics of block movement and dynamics of large earthquakes happening in block interaction boundaries.
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    XU Xiao-xue, JI Ling-yun, ZHU Liang-yu, WANG Guang-ming, ZHANG Wen-ting, LI Ning
    SEISMOLOGY AND EGOLOGY    2021, 43 (4): 771-789.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.04.003
    Abstract523)   HTML193)    PDF(pc) (11808KB)(426)       Save

    A MS6.4 earthquake occurred on May 21th, 2021 at Yangbi, Yunnan. In this paper, high resolution InSAR coseismic deformation fields were obtained based on the ascending and descending track of Sentinel-1 SAR images. Based on the InSAR-derived deformation fields, the geometric model of the seismogenic fault was determined according to the aftershock relocation results. Then the fine coseismic slip distribution of the fault plane of Yangbi earthquake was inversed using a distributed sliding inversion method. Finally, the regional strain distribution and the Coulomb stress variation on the surrounding faults caused by coseismic dislocations and viscoelastic relaxation effect after earthquake were calculated, and the seismic risk of the seismogenic structure and the surrounding faults was discussed. The results show that the descending track co-seismic deformation field shows that the NE wall of the seismogenic fault moves close to the satellite, while the SW wall moves far away from the satellite, and the coseismic deformation is symmetrically distributed. The maximum LOS vectors were 8.6cm and 7.9cm, respectively, and the descending track profile showed a coseismic displacement up to 15cm. The fringes on the southwest side of the ascending track interferograms are relatively clear, showing movement close to the satellite, and the maximum LOS deformation magnitude is 5.7cm, while the interference fringes on the northeast side are not clear and the noise is obvious. The fault co-seismic dislocation is mainly of dextral strike-slip with a small amount of normal fault component. The coseismic slip mainly distributes at depths 2~10km, and the coseismic sliding rupture length is about 16km with the maximum slip of approximately 0.46m at a depth 6.5km. The average slip angle is 180° and the inverted magnitude is approximately MW6.1. The causative fault did not rupture the surface. From the analysis of regional strain distribution and tectonic dynamic background, the Yangbi earthquake occurred in the region where the Sichuan-Yunnan rhomboid block is blocked in its process of SE movement by the South China block and deforms strongly. Combined with the analysis of the geometric occurrence and movement properties of faults, our study suggests that the causative fault of the Yangbi earthquake maybe is a branch of the Weixi-Qiaohou Fault or an unknown fault that is nearly parallel to it on the west side. This earthquake has a significant impact on the Coulomb stress of the Longpan-Qiaohou Fault, Chenghai Fault and Red River Fault in the southwestern Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block. The Coulomb stress in the northern section of Red River Fault is the most significant. The cumulative Coulomb stress variations of the coseismic and 10 years after the earthquake show that the Coulomb stress variation has increased in the northwestern Yunnan tectonic area. This earthquake is another typical seismic event occurring in the southwest of the Sichuan-Yunnan block after the Lijiang MS7.0 earthquake in 1996 and the Mojiang MS5.9 earthquake in 2018. The risk of strong earthquakes in the regional extensional tectonic system in northwest Yunnan and in the north section of the Red River fault zone cannot be ignored.

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    CAO Jun, LI Yan-bao, RAN Yong-kang, XU Xi-wei, MA Dong-wei, ZHANG Zhi-qiang
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2022, 44 (4): 1071-1085.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2022.04.016
    Abstract576)   HTML26)    PDF(pc) (11099KB)(426)       Save

    With the acceleration of urbanization process, solving the earthquake and its associated disasters caused by buried active fault in urban areas has been a difficult issue in the construction of urban public security system. It is difficult to deal with the anti-seismic issues of cross-fault buildings using the existing techniques, therefore, reasonable setback distance for buried active fault in urban area is the only method for the planning and construction at the beginning. At present, theoretical research about setback for active fault is becoming more and more mature, and the mandatory national standard “Setback distance for active fault” will be enacted soon. As a result, how to work on the basis of these theories and national standards is in urgent. In recent years, the exploration of urban active faults was successively completed. However, there are no typical cases of how to make full use of the achievements of urban active fault projects in the follow-up work, and how to guide urban construction based on the project conclusions, so as to ensure urban safety and rational development of urban economy.

    In this paper, taking a site along the Anqiu-Juxian Fault in the Tanlu fault zone in Xinyi city as an example, based on the results of 1︰10 000 active fault distribution map, and referring to the stipulation of national standard “Setback distance for active fault”, 12 shallow seismic survey lines with a spacing of less than 50m were laid out firstly, and the results of shallow seismic exploration show the existence of two high-dip faults in the site. Secondly, considering the shallow seismic survey results and the geologic site conditions, five rows of borehole joint profiles were selected along five of the shallow seismic survey lines. Based on the location of the faults and stratigraphy in the site revealed by the borehole joint profiles, and considering the latest research results of Quaternary stratigraphy and the conclusion of urban active faults detection, the west branch fault is constrained to be a Holocene active fault and the east branch fault is an early Quaternary fault. As a result, we precisely mapped the trace, dip and upper breakpoint of the fault in the site based on the shallow seismic exploration and joint borehole profile. The accurate positioning of the plane position of the active fault differs by about 200m from the 1:1000 strip distribution map.

    According to the relevant national standards and scientific research results, active faults in the site shall be avoided. Based on the surface traces of active faults revealed by the accurate detection in the site, the active fault deformation zone was delineated, and the range of setback distance for active fault was defined outside the deformation zone. The detection results accurately determined the plane distribution of the active fault in the site, which meets the accuracy of the development and utilization of the site. Based on the accurately located active fault trace, and complying with the forthcoming national standard “Setback distance from active fault”, this study not only scientifically determines the setback distance for active fault in the site, but also releases the scarce land resources in the city. This result achieves the goal of scientifically avoiding potential dangerous urban hidden active fault and making full use of land.

    The case detection process confirms that the results of urban active fault detection are still difficult to meet the fault positioning accuracy required for specific site development, and the range of active fault deformation zone within the site must be determined based on the precise positioning method for hidden active faults as stipulated in the national standard “Setback distance for active fault”. The national standard “Code for seismic design of buildings” only specifies the setback distance for active faults under different seismic intensity, but does not provide any clear definition of the accuracy of active fault positioning, so it is difficult to define the required active fault positioning degree and boundary range of the deformation zone of active fault in practice. The national standard “Setback distance for active fault” clearly defines various types of active fault detection and positioning methods, determines the scope of active fault deformation zone and the accurate setback distance for active fault in different cases. The specific case proves that before developing and utilizing specific sites along urban concealed active faults, relevant work shall be carried out according to the national standard “Setback distance for active fault” to effectively resolve the issue about the relations between urban development and urban safety, so the promulgation and implementation of national standard should speed up.

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    LIU Xiao-li, XIA Tao, LIU-ZENG Jing, YAO Wen-qian, XU Jing, DENG De-bei-er, HAN Long-fei, JIA Zhi-ge, SHAO Yan-xiu, WANG Yan, YUE Zi-yang, GAO Tian-qi
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2022, 44 (2): 461-483.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2022.02.012
    Abstract230)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (23227KB)(424)       Save

    Earthquake surface ruptures are the key to understand deformation pattern of continental crust and rupture behavior of tectonic earthquake, and the criteria to directly define the active fault avoidance zone. Traditionally, surface fissures away from the main rupture fault are usually regarded as the result triggered by strong ground motion. In recent years, the earth observation technology of remote sensing with centimeter accuracy provides rich necessary data for fine features of co-seismic surface fractures and fissures. More and more earthquake researches, such as the 2019 MW7.3 Ridgecrest earthquake, the 2016 MW7 Kumamoto earthquake, the 2020 MW6.5 Monte Cristo Range earthquake, suggest that we might miss off-fault fissures associated with tectonic interactions during the seismic rupture process, if they are simply attributed to effect of strong ground motion. Such distribution pattern of co-seismic surface displacement may not be isolated, it encourages us to examine the possible contribution of other similar events. The 22 May 2021 MW7.4 Madoi earthquake in Qinghai Province, China ruptured the Jiangcuo Fault which is the extension line of the southeastern branch of the Kunlun Fault, and caused the collapse of the Yematan bridge and the Cangmahe bridge in Madoi County. The surface rupture in the 2021Madoi earthquake includes dominantly ~158km of left-lateral rupture, which provides an important chance for understanding the complex rupture system.
    The high-resolution UAV images and field mapping provide valuable support to identify more detailed and tiny co-seismic surface deformation. New 3 to 7cm per pixel resolution images covering the major surface rupture zone were collected by two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in the first months after the earthquake. We produced digital orthophoto maps (DOM), and digital elevation models (DEM) with the highest accuracy based on the Agisoft PhotoScanTM and ArcGIS software. Thus, the appearance of post-earthquake surface displacement was hardly damaged by rain or animals, and well preserved in our UAV images, such as fractures with small displacement or faint fissures. These DOM and DEM data with centimeter resolution fastidiously detailed rich details of surface ruptures, which have been often easily overlooked or difficult to detect in the past or on low-resolution images. In addition, two large-scale dense field investigation data were gathered respectively the first and fifth months after the earthquake. Based on a lot of firsthand materials, a comprehensive dataset of surface features associated with co-seismic displacement was built, which includes four levels: main and secondary tectonic ruptures, delphic fissures, and beaded liquefaction belts or swath subsidence due to strong ground motion. Using our novel dataset, a complex distributed pattern presents along the fault guiding the 158km co-seismic surface ruptures along its strike-direction. The cumulative length of all surface ruptures reaches 310km. Surface ruptures of the MW7.4 Madoi earthquake fully show the diversity of geometric discontinuities and geometric complexity of the Jiangcuo Fault. This is reflected in the four most conspicuous aspects: direction rotation, tail divarication, fault step, and sharp change of rupture widths.
    We noticed that the rupture zone width changed sharply along with its strike or geometric complexity. Near the east of Yematan, on-fault ruptures are arranged in ten to several hundred meters. Besides clearly defined surface ruptures on the main fault, many fractures near the Dongo section and two rupture endpoints are mainly along secondary faulting crossing the main fault or its subparallel branches. Lengths of fracture zones along two Y-shaped branches at two endpoints are about 20km. At the rupture endpoints, the fractures away from the main rupture zone are about 5km. Some authors suggested the segment between the Dongcao along lake and Zadegongma was a “rupture gap”. In our field investigation, some faint fractures and fissures were locally observed in this segment, and these co-seismic displacement traces were also faintly visible on the UAV images.
    It is also worth noting that near the epicenter, Dongo, and Huanghexiang, a certain amount of off-fault surface fissures appear locally with steady strike, good stretch, and en echelon pattern. Some fissures near meanders of the Yellow River, often appear with beaded liquefaction belts or swath subsidences. In cases like that, fissure strikes are, in the main, orthogonal to the river. Distribution pattern of these fissures is different from usual gravity fissures or collapses. But they can’t be identified as tectonic ruptures because clear displacement marks are always absent with off-fault fissures. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the mechanism of off-fault co-seismic surface fissures. Some research results suggested, that during the process of a strong earthquake, a sudden slip of the rupturing fault can trigger strain response of surrounding rocks or previous compliant faults, and result in triggering surface fractures or fissures.
    Because of regional tectonic backgrounds, deep-seated physical environments, and site conditions(such as lithology and overburden thickness), the pattern and physicalcause of co-seismic surface ruptures vary based on different events. Focal mechanisms of the mainshock and most aftershocks indicate a near east-west striking fault with a slight dip-slip, but focal mechanisms of two MS≥4.0 aftershocks show a thrust slip occurring near the east of the rupture zone. On the 1︰250000 regional geological map, the Jiangcuo Fault is oblique with the Madoi-Gande Fault and the Xizangdagou-Cangmahe Fault at wide angles, and with several branches near the epicenter and the west endpoint at small angles. Put together the surface fissure distribution pattern, source parameters of aftershocks and the regional geological map, we would like to suggest that besides triggered slip of several subparallel or oblique branches with the Jiangcuo Fault, inheritance faulting of pre-existing faults may promote the development of off-fault surface fissures of the 2021Madoi earthquake. Why there are many off-fault distributed surface fissures with patterns different from the gravity fissures still needs further investigation. The fine expression of the distributed surface fractures can contribute to fully understanding the mechanism of the seismic rupture process, and effectively address seismic resistance requirements of major construction projects in similar tectonic contexts in the world.

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    CHANG Zu-feng, CHANG Hao, LI Jian-lin, MAO Ze-bin, ZANG Yang
    SEISMOLOGY AND EGOLOGY    2021, 43 (4): 881-898.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.04.009
    Abstract594)   HTML39)    PDF(pc) (18555KB)(421)       Save

    The Weixi-Qiaohou Fault is located in the west boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan rhombic block, and also the north extension segment of active Red River fault zone. Strengthening the research on the late Quaternary activity of Weixi-Qiaohou Fault is of great theoretical and practical significance for further understanding the seismogeological background in northwest Yunnan and the structural deformation mechanism of the boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan block. Based on the 1︰50 000 active fault mapping and the research results of the National Natural Science Fund project, this paper mainly elaborates the latest active times of the fault and paleoseismic events along it revealed by exploration trenches at Matoushui, Shiyan, and Yushichang. Matoushui trench revealed three faults developed in late Pleistocene and Holocene pluvial fan accumulation, and the latest ages of faulted strata are(638±40)a BP and(1 335±23)a BP, respectively. The Shiyan trench revealed six faults, three in the western section and three in the eastern section. The three faults in the western section dislocated the late Pleistocene and Holocene accumulation, and the 14C ages of the latest faulted strata are(4 383±60)a BP, (4 337±52)a BP and(4 274±70)a BP, respectively; the other three faults revealed in the eastern part of the trench offset the Holocene fluvial facies accumulation, the 14C age of the latest faulted strata in the footwall of the main fault is(9 049±30)a BP, and the 14C ages of two sets of faulted sag pond deposits in the hanging wall are(1 473±41)a BP and(133±79)a BP, separately. Five active faults are revealed in Yushichang trench. Among them, the F1 and F2 dislocated the gray-white gravelly clay layer and the black peat soil layer. The 14C age of the gray-white gravelly clay layer is(1 490±30)a BP, and 14C ages of the upper and lower part of the black peat soil layer are(1 390±30)a BP and(1 190±30)a BP, respectively. The F3 and F4 faults offset the gray-white gravelly clay layer, the black peat soil layer and the brown yellow sand bearing clay, and the OSL age of brown yellow sand bearing clay is(0.6±0.2)ka. The F5 fault dislocated the gray-white gravelly clay layer, its 14C age is(1 490±30)a BP. According to the relationship between strata and the analysis of dating data, the Yushichang trench revealed two seismic events, the first one occurred at(1 490±30)~(1 390±30)a BP, as typified by the faulting of F5, the second paleoseismic event is represented by the faulting of F1, F2, F3 and F4.The F1 and F2 faulted the gray-white gravelly clay layer and the black peat soil. Fault F3 and F4 dislocated the gravelly clay, the peat soil and the sandy clay, and a seismic wedge is developed between fault F3 and F4, which is filled with the brownish yellow sandy clay. The OSL dating result of the brownish yellow sandy clay layer is(0.6±0.2)ka. Judging from the contact relationship between strata and faults, F3 and F4may also faulted the upper brownish yellow sandy clay layer, but the layer was eroded due to later denudation. Therefore, fault F1, F2, F3 and F4 represent the second event. Combined with the analysis of fault scarps with a height of 2~2.5m and clear valley landform in the slope near the fault, it is estimated that the time of the second paleoearthquake event is about 600 years ago, and the magnitude could reach 7. The trench at Gaichang reveals that the seismic wedge, soft sedimentary structure deformation and the medium fine sand uplift(sand vein)and other ancient seismic phenomena are well developed near the fault scarp. All these phenomena are just developed below the fault scarp. The vertical dislocation of the strata on both sides of the seismic wedge is 35cm, and 14C ages of the misinterpreted peat clay are(36 900±350)a BP and(28 330±160)a BP, respectively, so, the occurrence time of this earthquake event is estimated to be about 28 000a BP. If the fault scarp with a height of 2m was formed during this ancient earthquake, and considering the 0.35m vertical offset revealed by the trench, the magnitude of this ancient earthquake could reach 7.The Matoushui trench revealed three faults, which not only indicated the obvious activity of the faults in late Pleistocene to Holocene, but also revealed two paleoseismic events. Among them, the OSL age of the faulted sand layer by fault F1 is(21.54±1.33)ka, which represents a paleoearthquake event of 20 000 years ago. The faulted strata by fault F2 and F3 are similar, which represent another earthquake event. The 14C dating results show that the age of the latest faulted strata is(638±40)Cal a BP, accordingly, it is estimated that the second earthquake time is about 600 years ago. A clear and straight fault trough with a width of several ten meters and a length of 4km is developed from Meiciping to Matoushui. Within the fault trough, there are fault scarps with different heights and good continuity, the height of which is generally 3~5m, the lowest is 2~3m, and the highest is 8~10m. Tracing south along this line, the eastern margin of Yueliangping Basin shows a fault scarp about 5m high. After that, it extends to Luoguoqing, and again appears as a straight and clear fault scarp several meters high. In addition, in the 2km long foothills between Hongxing and Luoguoping, there are huge rolling stones with diameters of 2~5m scattered everywhere, the maximum diameter of which is about 10m, implying a huge earthquake collapse occurred here. According to the length, height, width and dislocation of the rupture zone, and combined with the experience of Yiliang M≥7 earthquake and Myanmar Dongxu M7.3 earthquake, this earthquake magnitude is considered to be ≥7.

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    LIU Rui-chun, ZHANG Jin, GUO Wen-feng, CHEN Hui, ZHENG Ya-di, CHENG Cheng
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2021, 43 (3): 540-558.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.03.005
    Abstract291)   HTML    PDF(pc) (5275KB)(392)       Save
    The southeastern margin of the Ordos block is a key area for dynamic transformation from collision and compression in the western part of the Chinese mainland to extension in the east, and also is the junction of the NE-SW trending structure in the north and near the E-W trending structure in the south of the North China block. The tectonic activity in the southeastern margin of the Ordos block is intense. In this region, the Houma-Yuncheng section is a noteworthy area for medium- and long-term large earthquake risk determined by China Earthquake Administration, which involves three tectonic units: Linfen Basin, Yuncheng Basin and Emei Platform. The potential seismogenic faults include the Hancheng Fault, the southern margin fault of Emei Platform and the piedmont fault of Zhongtiao Mountains. Because the neotectonic movement in this region is mainly dominated by strong differential movement, it is important to estimate the fault kinematics parameters based on the high-resolution vertical crustal movement observation constraints.
    Fault locking depth and slip rate are important indicators to judge the risk of future earthquakes. When the accumulation time of fault seismic moment and fault length are given, the larger fault locking depth and higher slip rate will cause the greater energy accumulation and stronger future earthquakes risk of the fault. Based on the traditional leveling and GPS data, previous studies found that the southeastern margin of the Ordos block is perhaps experiencing strong tectonic movement. However, the measuring point density of the above technical means is difficult to satisfy the quantitative study of the current activity characteristics of specific faults. Therefore, the interferogram stacking technique is used to obtain the spatial high-resolution InSAR average deformation rate field of the study area based on the Radarsat -2 wide-mode image in this paper firstly. At the same time, the three-component velocity of GPS continuous station in the study area is projected into the radar line of sight direction. After unifying the reference datum, comparative analysis was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of InSAR results. The results show that the standard deviation of the difference between the short-term InSAR and the long-term GPS observation values is 2.7mm. The annual crustal deformation field obtained by using the interferogram stacking technology in the study area has a high accuracy, which can reflect the characteristics of regional crustal movement. It also indicates that the regional crustal short-term deformation is consistent with the long-term deformation. Secondly, the dip-slip fault dislocation model and particle swarm optimization(PSO)were used to invert the main fault slip rate and locking depth, the inversion was repeated 1 000 times, and the optimum estimate of parameters was obtained by statistical analysis of results and uncertainty. The fault slip rate and locking depth data approximately obey the normal distribution, and the stability is good; the dip angles of faults are skewed but concentrated. The above results show that the fault movement parameters obtained from InSAR deformation field inversion are reliable and can be used for regional tectonic movement analysis. Finally, based on the data of regional geological structure, fault slip rate, fault locking depth and present seismic activity, this paper analyzes the variation characteristics of InSAR deformation field, and discusses the fault tectonic movement mode, future seismic risk and regional tectonic deformation pattern in the southeastern margin of Ordos. The results show that the tectonic and nontectonic deformations are superimposed on the southeastern margin of Ordos. Tectonic deformation mainly occurs near active faults, which is related to fault slip rate and closure depth. Nontectonic deformation mainly occurs in the Quaternary strata inside the basin, which is related to the thickness of the aquifer and the amount of groundwater extraction, and the maximum can reach 5cm/a. The slip rate of the fault at the northern foot of the Zhongtiao Mountains and the northern margin of the Emei Platform is 0.37mm/a and 0.74mm/a, and the blocking depth is 3.4km and 4.3km, which are relatively shallow. It may indicate that the fault was not completely closed after the last strong earthquake and is dominated by shallow seismic activity. The slip rate of the fault on the southern margin of the Emei Platform is 0.47mm/a, and the closure depth is 0.95km, indicating that the faults are mainly creepy. The counterclockwise rotation of the Ordos block and the eastward extrusion and escape of the Qinling Mountains formed a quasi-triple junction structural area on the southeastern margin of Ordos, characterized by strike-slip-extension transition.
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    JI Hao-min, LI An, ZHANG Shi-min
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2021, 43 (3): 471-487.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.03.001
    Abstract577)   HTML    PDF(pc) (11209KB)(388)       Save
    The Tanlu fault zone(TLFZ)is the largest strike-slip fault system in eastern China, which is composed of five main faults in Shandong and Jiangsu Provinces. Among them, the Anqiu-Juxian Fault(AJF)is the only fault with obvious activity since the late Quaternary, and it is also the seismogenic structure of the Anqiu M7 earthquake in 70BC. It is of great significance to understand the tectonic activity of the TLFZ by analyzing the co-seismic displacement of this earthquake and studying the long-term activity behavior of the fault. According to the spatial distribution characteristics and seismic activity, the northern segment of the AJF between Juxian and Changyi(NAJF)is divided into four sub-segments, which are, from south to north, the Juxian-Mengyan segment, the Qingfengling segment, the Anqiu-Mengtong segment and the Changyi-Nanliu segment, respectively. However, paleoearthquake studies in the NAJF are not ideal, and only suggested that this segment was active in the Holocene. In addition, there is also no competent evidence of coseismic displacement in the previous researches.
    In this study, we interpreted the geomorphic trace of the fault through remote sensing images and found that there were a large number of gullies where dextral horizontal dislocations are discovered, which are concentrated in the Anqiu-Mengtong segment and Qingfengling segment. Later, we used the high-resolution UAV-SfM photogrammetry technology to map the typical geomorphic areas from Anqiu to Juxian in the field investigation, and obtained the DEM of areas with offset gullies. Then we measured the offsets of the gullies by the measurement software, LaDiCao_v2, and acquired 79 horizontal dislocations. Combined with 5 measurement results from the previous research, we finally obtained 84 horizontal dislocations, including 26 data in the Anqiu-Mengtong segment and 58 in the Qingfengling segment. According to the statistical results of the cumulative offset probability distribution(COPD), the horizontal displacements in the Anqiu-Mengtong segment mainly concentrated in 5 intervals with the peak values of 5m, 10.4m, 15.5m, 20.6m and 25m, respectively; the horizontal displacements in the Qingfengling segment mainly concentrated in 4 intervals with the peak values of 5m, 9.7m, 16m and 19.7m, respectively. The bigger data is of less statistical significance due to large time span and small amount. The smallest dextral horizontal displacements of gullies on these two segments are both about 5m, and the larger offsets are also multiples of 5m. In addition, as the increase of the interval peak value, the number of gullies in the interval decreases. Therefore, the minimum dislocation of 5m should represent the latest activity event of these two secondary faults and be the coseismic displacement of the earthquake; the large dislocations represent the cumulative displacements of multiple seismic events, which reveal the characteristic displacement of about 5m for the two secondary faults. However, due to the unclear paleoearthquake sequence, it is also unclear whether these sub-segments were active at the same time. In addition, based on the statistical analysis on the strike-slip seismic events, there are a series of empirical formulas among the coseismic displacement, magnitude, and surface rupture length about the strike-slip faults. We used the coseismic displacement of 5m to infer the magnitude and surface rupture length of the Anqiu earthquake, and the results show that the earthquake magnitude mostly ranges from 7.5 to 7.7 and the surface rupture length is about 100km. According to previous historical records, when the 70BC Anqiu earthquake struck, the quake was felt strongly in the city of Xi 'an, hundreds of kilometers away. Therefore, combined with the calculation results and the fact that only the 70BC Anqiu earthquake was recorded in the NAJF, if the coseismic displacement of 5m was caused by the Anqiu earthquake, its magnitude may be undervalued, and the actual magnitude should be above 7.5. At the same time, the latest paleoearthquake event on Juxian-Mengyan segment is(2 140±190)a BP ago, close to the Anqiu earthquake in 70BC. Therefore, due to the calculation results of the surface rupture length of 100km, the Anqiu earthquake may have caused the cascade rupture of Anqiu-Mengtong, Qingfengling, and Juxian-Mengyan segments. Or the characteristic displacement of 5m indicates another paleoearthquake event, and the seismogenic fault of the 70BC Anqiu M7 earthquake is the Changyi-Nanliu segment, because there are more evidences of Holocene activity observed in this segment. However, since there has been no strong earthquake in this segment for more than 2 000a and various evidences have indicated that this segment has the ability of generating strong earthquake, high attention should be paid to the seismic risk in this area in the future.
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    YIN Xin-xin, JIANG Chang-sheng, CAI Run, GUO Xiang-yun, JIANG Cong, WANG Zu-dong, ZOU Xiao-bo
    SEISMOLOGY AND EGOLOGY    2021, 43 (4): 864-880.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.04.008
    Abstract438)   HTML34)    PDF(pc) (11709KB)(381)       Save

    The occurrence of strong earthquake is closely related to the distribution of crustal velocity anomalies. Some studies have shown that strong earthquakes occur in the transition zone between high-velocity anomalies and low-velocity anomalies in the middle and upper crust or inside the low-velocity anomaly zone. Thus, high-resolution imaging of the velocity structure in the seismic source area and accurate earthquake location can assist the evaluation of seismogenic settings of strong earthquakes. On May 21, 2021, an MS6.4 earthquake occurred in Yangbi, Yunnan with casualties and property losses. The epicenter region of the Yangbi earthquake is in the western Yunnan area of the Sichuan-Yunnan block, which is located on the southeastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and characterized with intensive tectonic activity. Previous studies in this area are mostly on regional scales, and lacking on the three-dimensional fine crustal velocity structure in the Yangbi earthquakes area. To investigate the seismogenic environment and source characteristics of the 2021 Yangbi MS6.4 sequence in Yunnan, we used the P-wave and S-wave arrival data of 12 652 earthquakes recorded by both the Yunnan regional digital network and the mobile observation arrays over a 10-year period(May 1, 2011, to May 31, 2021) and obtained the average VP/VS ratio of 1.79 via fitting the P-wave and S-wave arrival-time curves with the Wadati method. The magnitude ranges from MS0.0 to MS6.4, and the original focal depth ranges from 0 to 35km. To ensure the reliability of the calculation results, at least 4 stations records are required, and the maximum station azimuth gap allowed is 120°. Furthermore, the event-station distance is restricted to 400km and only earthquakes with travel time residuals<0.5s are retained. Our final velocity model is further refined via gridding(i.e., nodes)with an optimal horizontal grid of 0.25°×0.25° and a range between 0~65km vertically. A checkerboard test is also conduced to validate our inversion results. The test results showed that the recovery degree is high except for the depths of 0 and 65km, which were impacted by the uneven seismic distribution and rays. The high degree of recovery of 5~45km suggests high-resolution and robust imaging at these depths. Finally, the double-difference tomography method(TomoDD)was used to invert the three-dimensional P-wave and S-wave velocity structures in the Yangbi and its surrounding areas(24.5°~26.5°N, 99°~101°E). According to the result of precise location, the MS6.4 main shock is located at 99.89°E, 25.70°N with a focal depth of 7.9km. The Yangbi MS6.4 earthquake sequence is mainly distributed along the NW direction. Least-squares fitting prefers a~20km long axis with a strike of 312°, and the hypocenter depths are 5~20km. In general, the studied sequence is shallow and located within the upper crust, consistent with the depth distribution characteristics of historical earthquakes in this area. According to the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of the aftershock sequence, the aftershocks of the MS6.4 earthquake mainly spread unilaterally toward SE direction. Thus, we speculate that the overall medium in the NW of the mainshock is rigid and hinders aftershocks evolution. On the north side of the MS6.4 mainshock epicenter, a group of earthquakes spread along the NNE direction and extended to the Weixi-Qiaohou Fault that hosted the MS4.1 earthquake on May 27, 2021. Considering the geological and structural background, we believe this earthquake occurred on a parallel but unmapped fault on the SE side of the Weixi-Qiaohou Fault. In contrast, the earthquakes spreading in the NNE direction on the north side of the main shock maybe occurred on an unknown fault in the NNE direction. Therefore, the two faults form a conjugate structure. From the imaging results, the upper crustal velocity structure in the study area is consistent with the geological structure changes and the active faults, where the velocities are low. At 0km depth, the extremely low P-wave and S-wave velocities may reflect impacts from surface sediments. A velocity contrast is observed at a depth of 5km near the mainshock. In addition, a high-velocity anomaly was observed to the southeast side of the mainshock at 10-km depth, with a length of about 0.6°(EW)and a width of about 0.2°(SN). Within the depth range of 10~20km, the distribution of earthquakes near the mainshock shows a clear strip-like distribution, delineating the geometry of the fault. The velocity structure and seismic relocation results at 10-km depth suggest that majority of the events locate around the high-velocity anomaly on the west side of the Weixi-Qiaohou Fault. From the AA' profile, both P- and S-wave velocities suggest high-velocity anomalies in the SE direction of the mainshock. Combining with the distribution characteristics of aftershocks, the non-uniform variations of velocity structure are probably the major factor controlling the distribution of aftershocks, leading to the aftershock distribution extending along the SE direction.

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    SHEN Jun, DAI Xun-ye, XIAO Chun, JIAO Xuan-kai, BAI Qilegeer, DENG Mei, LIU Ze-zhong, XIA Fang-hua, LIU Yu, LIU Ming
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2022, 44 (4): 909-924.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2022.04.006
    Abstract275)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (12117KB)(377)       Save

    Beijing plain is a strong earthquake tectonic area in China, where the Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake with M8 occurred in 1679.The seismogenic fault of this earthquake is the Xiadian Fault. An about 10km-long earthquake surface fault is developed, striking northeast. Deep seismic exploration reveals that this surface fault is a direct exposure of a deep fault cutting through the whole crust, and it is concealed in the Quaternary layers to both ends. Previous studies have not yet revealed how the deep fault with M8 earthquake extended to the southwest and northeast. In the study of Xiadian Fault, it is found that there is another fault with similar strike and opposite dip in the west of Xiadian Fault, which is called the West Xiadian Fault in this paper. In this study, six shallow seismic profiles data are used to determine the location of this fault in Sanhe city, and the late Quaternary activity of the fault is studied by using the method of combined drilling, magnetic susceptibility logging and luminescence dating.

    The results of shallow seismic exploration profiles show that the fault is zigzag with a general strike of NE and dip NW. In vertical profile, it is generally of normal fault. It shows the flower structure in one profile, which indicates that the fault may have a certain strike-slip property. On two long seismic reflection profiles, it can be seen that the northwest side of the fault is a half graben structure. This half graben-like depression, which has not been introduced by predecessors, is called Yanjiao fault depression in this paper. The maximum Quaternary thickness of the graben is 300m. The West Xiadian Fault is the main controlling fault in the southern margin of the sag.

    The Xiadian Fault, which is opposite to the West Xiadian Fault in dips, controls the Dachang depression, which is a large-scale depression with a Quaternary thickness of more than 600m. The West Xiadian Fault is opposite to the Xiadian Fault, and there is a horst between the West Xiadian Fault and the Xiadian Fault. The width of the horst varies greatly, and the narrowest part is less than 1km. The West Xiadian Fault may form an echelon structure with Xiadian Fault in plane, and they are closely related in depth.

    According to the core histogram and logging curves of ten boreholes and eight effective dating data, the buried depth of the upper breakpoint of the concealed fault is about 12m, which dislocates the late Pleistocene strata. The effective dating result of this set of strata is(36.52±5.39)ka. There is no evidence of Holocene activity of the fault, but it is certain that the fault is an active fault in the late Pleistocene in Sanhe region. The vertical slip rate is about 0.075mm/a since late Pleistocene, and about 0.03mm/a since the late period of late Pleistocene. These slip rates are less than those of the Xiadian Fault in the same period. According to our study, the vertical slip rate of Xiadian Fault since late Pleistocene is about 0.25mm/a.

    Although the latest active age, the total movement amplitude since Quaternary and the sliding rate since late Pleistocene of West Xiadian Fault are less than those of Xiadian Fault, its movement characteristics is very similar to that of Xiadian Fault, and the two faults are close to each other in space, and closely related in deep structure. It can be inferred that the fault is probably a part of the seismogenic structure of the 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu M8 earthquake. In a broad sense, the Xiadian fault zone is likely to extend to the southwest along the West Xiadian Fault.

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    GAI Hai-long, LI Zhi-min, YAO Sheng-hai, LI Xin
    SEISMOLOGY AND EGOLOGY    2022, 44 (1): 238-255.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2022.01.015
    Abstract693)   HTML31)    PDF(pc) (22330KB)(375)       Save

    At 01:45 on January 8, 2022, Beijing Time, an MS6.9 earthquake occurred in Menyuan County, Haibei Prefecture, Qinghai Province, with a focal depth of 10km. The microscopic(instrument)epicenter is located at 37.77°N latitude and 101.26°E longitude in the intersection between the Toleshan fault zone and the Lenglongling fault zone in the northern Qilian-Qaidam block. The epicenter is 54km away from Menyuan County in Qinghai, 99km away from Qilian County, 100km away from Haiyan County, 83km away from Minle County in Gansu Province, 83km away from Yongchang County, and 141km away from Xining City. When the earthquake occurred, Menyuan County and Xining City, the capital of Qinghai Province, were strongly felt, and Yinchuan, Lanzhou, Xi'an and many other places were felt. At the same time, affected by the earthquake, the Lanxin high-speed rail line, an important railway transportation hub of the Belt and Road, was suspended. This earthquake is the largest earthquake in the world since 2022. It is also another earthquake of magnitude 6.0 or above in Qinghai Province following the Maduo MS7.4 earthquake on May 22, 2021. Besides, this earthquake is the event with the highest magnitude and the longest surface rupture in the region after the two M6.4 Menyuan earthquakes of August 26, 1986 and January 21, 2016. Therefore, this earthquake has attracted much attention from the society. The coseismic surface rupture distribution, combination characteristics, development properties and coseismic displacement of this earthquake were identified in time to help to have a correct understanding of the earthquake seismogenic structure, rupture process, and assessment of short-term earthquake hazards. It is also of great significance for major project route selection, earthquake fortification and rescue and disaster relief. On the basis of the on-site seismic geological investigation, based on the interpretation and analysis of high-resolution satellite remote sensing images, and combined with the low-altitude photogrammetry of unmanned aerial vehicles(DJI PHANTOM 4RTK), the author obtained the coseismic rupture data of five typical sites along the surface rupture zone generated by the earthquake. Using Agisoft Metashape Professional software to process the aerial photos of each section indoors, a high-resolution orthophoto map(DOM)was generated. At the same time, the five typical earthquake surface rupture sections were described in detail in ArcGIS Pro software based on the orthophoto map. Preliminary research shows that the surface rupture zone of the Menyuan MS6.9 earthquake is more than 22km long and consists of the main rupture of the northern branch and the secondary rupture of the southern branch. The north branch main rupture zone is distributed in the middle-western segment of the Lenglongling Fault of central Haiyuan fault zone, with a length of more than 18km and an overall strike of 295°. The maximum co-seismic horizontal displacement is located in the middle of the rupture zone at Liuhuangou(37.799°N, 101.2607°E), which is about 3.1m and gradually decays towards both ends. The secondary rupture of the southern branch is distributed on the local segments of the eastern Toleshan Fault in the central-western Haiyuan fault zone, with a length of about 4km and a strike of 275°, constituting a secondary branch rupture zone arranged in a left-stepped en-echelon pattern to the western segment of the main rupture zone. There are en-echelon extensional stepovers between the two rupture zones of the north and south branches. The whole surface rupture zone is mainly composed of linear shear cracks, oblique tension cracks, tension-shear cracks, compressional bulges and other structural types. The coseismic surface rupture has the characteristic of typical left-lateral strike-slip motion with a thrust component, and the maximum vertical dislocation is 0.8m.

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    WANG Liang, JIAO Ming-ruo, QIAN Rui, ZHANG Bo, YANG Shi-chao, SHAO Yuan-yuan
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2022, 44 (2): 378-394.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2022.02.007
    Abstract310)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (14665KB)(366)       Save

    In recent years, the southern Liaoning Province is the main area of seismic activity in Liaoning Province, and the main geological structure units in this area include the Liaohe rift and Liaodong uplift in the east. As an important manifestation of modern tectonic activity, earthquakes are less distributed in Liaohe rift. Most of the seismic activities are concentrated in eastern Liaoning uplift area on the east side of Liaohe rift. The structure in this area is relatively complex. The revival of old faults during Quaternary is obvious, and there are more than 10 Quaternary faults. Among them, Haichenghe Fault and Jinzhou Fault are the faults with most earthquakes. The 1975 Haicheng MS7.3 earthquake occurred in the Haichenghe Fault and the 1999 Xiuyan MS5.4 earthquake occurred in the east of the fault.
    In this paper, the seismic phase bulletins are used for earthquakes from August 1975 to December 2017 recorded by 67 regional seismic stations of Liaoning Province. These stations were transformed during the Tenth Five-year Plan period. Using the double-difference tomography and tomoDD program, we relocated the earthquakes and inversed the velocity structures of the southern Liaoning area.
    In the study, grid method is used for model parameterization of seismic tomography, ART-PB is used for forward calculation, damped least square method is used in inversion, and checkerboard test is used for the solution evaluation. The theoretical travel time is forward calculated by taking the checkerboard velocity model of imaging meshing and plus or minus 5% of anomaly as the theoretical model. The checkerboard test results show that the checkerboard P-wave velocity model at the depths of 4km, 13km, 24km and 35km in the study area can be restored completely, and most areas at the depth of 33km can also be restored completely.
    We calculated and got the relocations of almost all of the earthquakes in southern Liaoning area and obtained a better distribution of P wave velocities at the depth of 4km, 13km, 24km and 33km. The results show that earthquakes mainly concentrated in two areas: the Haicheng aftershock area and the Gaizhou earthquake swarm activity area. The distribution of seismicity in this area is obvious in NW direction.
    The result of P-wave tomography in 4km depth indicates the consistent characteristics of shallow velocity structure with the surface geological structure in southern Liaoning Province area. The two sides of the Tanlu fault zone are characterized by different velocity structures. The high and low velocity discontinuities are located in the Tan Lu fault zone, which is in good agreement with the geological structure of the region. In Haichenghe Fault in the Haicheng aftershock area, there are high-velocity zone in the shallow layer and low-velocity zone in the depth of 4~12km, and the low-velocity zone intrudes and deepens eastward. The Xiuyan earthquake with MS5.4 in 1999 occurred on the boundary section of high and low velocity zones. At the same time, there is a gap between Xiuyan and Haicheng sequences, which is located at the junction of high and low velocities, and there is a significant low-velocity zone underground in the region. From the perspective of mechanism of the seismogenic model, this velocity structure model may generate large earthquakes.

    There are high-velocity zones at the ends of different segments of Jinzhou Fault, and the Gaizhou earthquake swarm occurred in the high-velocity area at the end of the fault. It is speculated that the activity of the Gaizhou earthquake swarm may be caused by the rise of water saturation in rocks due to the intrusion of liquid under the condition of stress accumulation.

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    LIANG Kuan, HE Zhong-tai, JIANG Wen-liang, LI Yong-sheng, LIU Ze-min
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2022, 44 (1): 256-278.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2022.01.016
    Abstract656)   HTML24)    PDF(pc) (24460KB)(364)       Save

    At 1:45 on January 8, 2022, a MS6.9 earthquake occurred in Menyuan County, Haibei Prefecture, Qinghai Province. The epicenter(37.77°N, 101.26°E)is located in the western segment of the Lenglongling Fault of the Qilian-Haiyuan fault zone, with a focal depth of 10km. The earthquake is located in the northwest of the MS6.4 Menyuan earthquake on January 21, 2016. According to the survey results of China Earthquake Administration, the highest intensity of this earthquake is IX degree, and the long axis of the isoseismic line is NWW-striking. The earthquake caused serious damage to the Daliang Tunnel between Haomen Station and Junmachang Station, and the Lanxin high-speed railway was interrupted. After the earthquake, the distribution of the earthquake surface rupture zone was quickly determined by interpreting the GF-7 satellite post-earthquake images, and the field surface rupture investigation was carried out at the epicenter site in the first time. The field investigation mainly includes the identification of surface rupture zones, the investigation of rupture characteristics, the survey of fault geomorphology, the high-precision aerial photogrammetry of typical rupture points, the identification and measurement of coseismic dislocation, and the investigation of earthquake disasters. Aerial photogrammetry realizes real-time difference through UAV linked network RTK, and takes high-definition photos from multiple angles. Pix4D software is used to complete calculation and point cloud encryption, etc. DSM (Digital Surface Model) and DOM (Digital Orthophoto Map) are generated for surface rupture space reproduction and feature measurement and analysis. According to the interpretation of high-resolution remote sensing images by GF-7 satellite and field investigation, the surface rupture of MS6.9 Menyuan earthquake can be divided into NW-striking western segment of Lenglongling Fault and EW-striking eastern segment of Tuolaishan Fault. The two surface ruptures are 291° and 86.9°, respectively, and their lengths are not less than 26km and 3.5km respectively. We made detailed observation and measurement on the Jingyangling site, Daogou site, east Daogou site, Shixiamen site, the seven sites along the Liuhuanggou on the Lenglongling Fault, and the Yangchangzigou site on the Tuolaishan Fault. The surface rupture zone is mainly a complex coseismic surface deformation zone formed by the combination of multiple types of fractures, such as tensional fracture, tensional shear fracture, compression bulge and seismic depression, and characterized by sinistral strike-slip motion and partly by thrusting. Generally, the NW-striking ruptures exhibit left-lateral strike-slip characteristics, while NW-striking branch ruptures exhibit a small amount of right-lateral strike-slip characteristics. At Shixiamen site, four pasture fences were continuously offset left-laterally by 2.0~2.15m. At the Daliang Tunel site, the rut was offset left-laterally by 2.77m measured by UAV, which is the largest co-seismic left-lateral displacement of this earthquake. Based on high-resolution remote sensing image interpretation, field investigation, InSAR inversion of focal mechanism, fault rupture model and small earthquake precision location, it is determined that the earthquake occurred at the deep intersection of the Tuolaishan Fault and Lenglongling Fault, and the main seismogenic structure is the western segment of Lenglongling Fault(strike 112°, dip 88°). The Tuolaishan Fault on its west side ruptured simultaneously at the east end. According to the distribution characteristics of the surface ruptures and the field investigation of this earthquake, we believe that the Lenglongling Fault continues to extend westward after passing through the Liuhuanggou No. 1 site until the Jingyangling site, and the NWW-striking Lenglongling Fault has a “Y”-shaped contact relationship with the EW-striking Tuolaishan Fault. The 1986 MS6.4 earthquake occurred at the northwestern end of the Lenglongling North Fault, which protrudes in an arc toward NE, and the 2016 MS6.4 earthquake occurred at the southeastern end of the fault. Affected by the left-lateral strike-slip movement of the Lenglongling Fault, the small block bounded by the Lenglongling Fault and the Lenglongling North Fault also moves in the direction of SEE relative to the northern block. Therefore, the 1986 MS6.4 earthquake showed tensile properties, and the 2016 MS6.4 earthquake showed compression properties. The seismogenic structure of the Menyuan MS6.9 earthquake is the Lenglongling Fault, so the earthquake is mainly characterized by left-lateral strike-slip. The MS6.4 earthquake in 1986, MS6.4 earthquake in 2016 and MS6.9 earthquake in 2022all occurred in the western section of Lenglongling Fault. Three strong earthquakes of M>6 occurred in a short period of time, indicating that this area is still an accumulation area of stress and deformation, and has the potential risk of large earthquakes.
    Due to the limitation of the data range of the Gaofen-7 satellite image and the inconvenience of traffic caused by the icing of the river, the location of the easternmost end point of the rupture and the exact length of the rupture have not been determined in this field investigation. We hope that follow-up studies will be carried out to confirm the rupture length when weather conditions are appropriate.

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    LUO Quan-xing, LI Chuan-you, REN Guang-xue, LI Xin-nan, MA Zi-fa, DONG Jin-yuan
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (2): 399-413.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.010
    Abstract380)      PDF(pc) (10469KB)(362)       Save
    The Shanxi Graben System is one of the intracontinental graben systems developed around the Ordos Block in North China since the Cenozoic, and it provides a unique natural laboratory for studying the long-term tectonic history of active intracontinental normal faults in an extensional environment. Comparing with the dense strong earthquakes in its central part, no strong earthquakes with magnitudes over 7 have been recorded historically in the Jin-Ji-Meng Basin-and-Range Province of the northern Shanxi Graben System. However, this area is located at the conjunction area of several active-tectonic blocks(e.g. the Ordos, Yan Shan and North China Plain blocks), thus it has the tectonic conditions for strong earthquakes. Studying the active tectonics in the northern Shanxi Graben System will thus be of great significance to the seismic hazard assessment. Based on high-resolution remote sensing image interpretations and field investigations, combined with the UAV photogrammetry and OSL dating, we studied the late Quaternary activity and slip rate of the relatively poorly-researched Yanggao-Tianzhen Fault(YTF)in the Jin-Ji-Meng Basin-and-Range Province and got the followings: 1)The YTF extends for more than 75km from Dashagou, Fengzhen, Inner Mongolia in the west to Yiqingpo, Tianzhen, Shanxi Province in the east. In most cases, the YTF lies in the contact zone between the bedrock mountain and the sediments in the basin, but the fault grows into the basin where the fault geometry is irregular. At the vicinity of the Erdun Village, Shijiudun Village, and Yulinkou Village, the faults are not only distributed at the basin-mountain boundary, we have also found evidence of late Quaternary fault activity in the alluvial fans that is far away from the basin-mountain boundary. The overall strike of the fault is N78°E, but the strike gradually changes from ENE to NE, then to NWW from the west to the east, with dips ranging from 30° to 80°. 2)Based on field surveys of tectonic landforms and analysis of fault kinematics in outcrops, we have found that the sense of motion of the YTF changes along its strikes: the NEE and NE-striking segments are mainly normal dip-slip faults, while the left-laterally displaced gullies on the NWW segment and the occurrence characteristics of striations in the fault outcrop indicate that the NWW-striking segment is normal fault with minor sinistral strike-slip component. The sense of motion of the YTF determined by geologic and geomorphic evidences is consistent with the relationship between the regional NNW-SSE extension regime and the fault geometry. 3)By measuring and dating the displaced geologic markers and geomorphic surfaces, such as terraces and alluvial fans at three sites along the western segment of the YTF, we estimated that the fault slip rates are 0.12~0.20mm/a over the late Pleistocene. In order to compare the slip rate determined by geological method with extension rate constrained by geodetic measurement, the vertical slip rates were converted into horizontal slip rate using the dip angles of the fault planes measured in the field. At Zhuanlou Village, the T2 terrace was vertically displaced for(2.5±0.4)m, the abandonment age of the T2 was constrained to be(12.5±1.6)ka, so we determined a vertical slip rate of(0.2±0.04)mm/a using the deformed T2 terrace and its OSL age. For a 50°dipping fault, it corresponds to extension rate of(0.17±0.03)mm/a. At Pingshan Village, the vertical displacement of the late Pleistocene alluvial fan is measured to be(5.38±0.83)m, the abandonment age of the alluvial fan is(29.7±2.5)ka, thus we estimated the vertical slip rate of the YTF to(0.18±0.02)mm/a. For a 65° dipping fault, it corresponds to an extension rate of(0.09±0.01)mm/a. Ultimately, the corresponding extensional rates were determined to be between 0.09mm/a and 0.17mm/a. Geological and geodetic researches have shown that the northern Shanxi Graben System are extending in NNW-SSE direction with slip rates of 1~2mm/a. Our data suggests that the YTF accounts for about 10% of the crustal extension rate in the northern Shanxi Graben System.
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    ZHANG Zhi-wei, LONG Feng, ZHAO Xiao-yan, WANG Di
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2022, 44 (1): 170-187.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2022.01.011
    Abstract554)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (10401KB)(351)       Save

    Based on the focal mechanism solutions of 2 600 ML≥3.0 earthquakes in Sichuan and Yunnan area from January 2000 to March 2017, the focal mechanism quantitative classification and stress field inversion are carried out for the sub blocks and fault zones with relatively dense focal mechanisms. Using the focal mechanism solutions of 727 ML≥4.0 earthquakes from January 1970 to March 2017, the regional stress tensor damping method is used to inverse the spatial distribution of principal compressive stress in Sichuan and Yunnan area before and after Wenchuan MS8.0 and Lushan MS7.0 earthquakes, and the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of current stress field are discussed.
    The focal mechanisms are distributed mainly in Longmenshan fault zone, Xianshuihe-Anninghe-Zemuhe-Xiaojiang fault zone, Mabian-Yanjin fault zone, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault zone, the central Yunnan block, the west Yunnan block and the southwest Yunnan block in Sichuan and Yunnan area. The focal mechanism is mainly strike slip type in Sichuan and Yunnan area, but there are local differences. The Longmenshan fault zone is dominated by thrust type earthquakes, while in the Mabian-Yanjin fault zone, there are relatively more strike slip and thrust type earthquakes. The types of earthquakes in Sichuan Basin are complex, and there is no obvious dominant type. In general, the focal mechanisms of the Longmenshan fault zone and Sichuan Basin earthquakes are affected by strong earthquake and other factors, and the focal mechanism types have good inheritance in Sichuan and Yunnan area.
    The stress field in Sichuan and Yunnan area has obvious subarea characteristics, and it rotates clockwise from north to south. The compressive stress in Longmenshan fault zone and Sichuan Basin shows nearly EW direction. It shows NWW direction in the eastern boundary of Sichuan and Yunnan rhombic block and NNW direction in the inner part of rhombic, while it shows NNE direction in the western and southern Yunnan blocks. The principal compressive stress in Sichuan is more complex than that in Yunnan. The principal compressive stress direction in Sichuan experiences EW-NW-EW rotation from west to east, the dip angle is steep in the west and slow in the east, and the stress regime also experiences the transition from normal faulting to strike-slip to thrust. The principal compressive stress direction in Yunnan is NNE in the west and NNW in the east, forming an inverted “V” shape in space, the stress regime is mainly strike-slip and the dip angle is horizontal.
    Before and after the Wenchuan MS8.0 and Lushan MS7.0 strong earthquakes, the stress field in the Longmenshan fault zone changed greatly, followed by the Sichuan Basin and its surrounding areas, and there was no obvious change in other areas of Sichuan and Yunnan. The stress field in the Longmenshan fault zone experienced a complete transformation process from basic stress field to variable stress field to basic stress field.

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    TANG Qing, ZHENG Wen-jun, SHI Lin, ZHANG Dong-li, HUANG Rong
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (2): 366-381.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.008
    Abstract430)      PDF(pc) (4035KB)(339)       Save
    High-precision and high-resolution topography are the basis of quantitative study of active tectonics. Traditional methods are mainly interpreted from the remote sensing image and can only obtain two-dimensional, medium-resolution DEM(5~10m grid unit)or local three-dimensional surface deformation characteristics. A combination of offset and micro-relief information is essential for understanding the long-term rupture pattern of faults, such as in seismic hazard evaluation. The recently developed high-resolution light detection and ranging(LiDAR)technology can directly carry out high-precision and omni-directional three-dimensional measurement of the landform, and provide fine geomorphologic data for the study of active tectonics, which is helpful to deepen the understanding of surface rupture process and fault activity characteristics. In this study, we take part of the Xiaohongshan Fault, the western segment of Xiangshan-Tianjingshan Fault located in Gansu Province(NE Tibet), as an example of how LiDAR data may be used to improve the study of active faults. Using the airborne LiDAR technology, we obtain the three-dimensional surface deformation characteristics with high accuracy and establish the three-dimensional topographic model of the fault geomorphic. A high-resolution digital elevation model(DEM)of the Jingtai-Xiaohongshan Fault was extracted based on high-precision LiDAR data. Then the faulted geomorphic markers(gullies, ridges and terraces)were measured in detail along the fault, and different offset clusters and long-term sliding vector of different segments of the fault were finally acquired. We obtained the 82 horizontal displacements and 62 vertical displacements of geomorphic markers. According to the offset amounts, we observed peaks in the histogram by using the method of cumulative offset probability density and interpreted that each peak may represent an earthquake that ruptured the Xiaohongshan Fault. The results show that the horizontal and vertical displacements fall into five clusters, and the smallest cluster may indicate the coseismic slip of the most recent earthquake, while the other clusters may represent the slip accumulation of multiple preceding earthquakes. The sliding vectors constrained by the horizontal and vertical displacement of several typical geomorphic markers show obvious differences on different segments of the fault. The results show that the fault segment is divided into three segments from west to east, which indicates that the fault activity is not uniform along the fault.
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    ZHU Shuang, LIANG Hong-bao, WEI Wen-xin, LI Jing-wei
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2021, 43 (1): 249-261.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.01.015
    Abstract344)   HTML    PDF(pc) (4061KB)(338)       Save
    Late Cenozoic and modern tectonic deformation in mainland China is mainly characterized by active block movement, and the average slip rate of faults in the fault zone at the block boundary is an important indicator for quantitatively measuring the intensity of fault activity. The Tianshan Mountains, as the largest revival orogenic belt within Eurasia, with crustal movement basically manifesting as near north-south deformation and a large number of strong seismic surface ruptures, is one of the regions with strong tectonic movement and one of the key seismic hazard zones in China. Many experts have conducted relevant studies on the Tianshan region using GPS technology and have obtained some useful conclusions. These studies have not divided and analyzed the fault zone in detail, but only divided the Tianshan seismic zone into several major fault zones, such as the eastern and western sections of the northern Tianshan, and the eastern and western sections of the southern Tianshan. In order to analyze the activity characteristics of the major faults in the Tianshan region more clearly, this paper refines the major faults and selects 14 major active faults in combination with the distribution of active faults in China proposed by Xu Xi-wei et al. 18 blocks are divided into secondary blocks in Tianshan region, with the major active blocks in the Tianshan region taken as the boundary; The GNSS data of the surrounding areas of 1999—2015 in the Tianshan seismic zone are collected in this paper and used to calculate the velocity field results, and the block locking depth and the slip rate of major faults are calculated using the elastic block model to quantify the seismogenic capacity of major faults. Because the fault closure will produce obvious elastic deformation gradient around the fault, the greater the depth of fault closure is, the greater the influence will be. The fault locking depth can be constrained by the method of GPS data fitting of this model, and the influence of fault locking depth is verified by the method of GPS minimum residual RMS in this paper. According to the optimal locking depth obtained in this paper, the velocity field in Tianshan area is simulated and calculated. The residual mean value of the velocity field simulated by the elastic block model is small, and the average velocity error in the east-west direction is 1.57mm/a, the average velocity error in the north-south direction is 1.72mm/a. At the same time, the slip rate of major faults is obtained. The results show that: the horizontal shortening of the whole Tianshan region is significant, which is consistent with the tectonic background of the region, and the shortening value in the southern Tianshan region is higher than that in the northern Tianshan region; the shortening tensile rate is significantly larger than the slip rate, which shows that the fault zone at basin mountain junction in the Xinjiang Tianshan region is dominated by backwash activity; the extrusion rate in the western section of the southern Tianshan fault zone is in a high value state, reaching(-6.3±1.9)mm/a, which is higher than that in the eastern part of the southern Tianshan; the extrusion rate in the western part of the northern Tianshan is also higher than that in the eastern part. All the strong earthquakes of magnitude 8 and more than 80% of the strong earthquakes of magnitude 7 and above in China occurred in the boundary zones of active blocks according to the historical records, the motion characteristics of the boundary zone of active blocks play an important role in controlling the generation and occurrence of earthquakes, and the seismicity of faults may be quantitatively calculated by the loss of seismic moment. In this paper, we collected a list of strong earthquakes of magnitude 6 and above in the Tianshan area since 1900, estimated the seismic moment release of the main faults in the Tianshan seismic zone based on the above list, and compared it with the calculated seismic moment accumulation to obtain the seismic moment loss of the corresponding fault. Among them, the maximum release of seismic moment of the Beiluntai Fault reached 8.69×1019N·m; due to the release of several moderate and strong earthquakes, the seismic moment of middle of Bo-A Fault and Keping Fault have not reached the deficit state at present, the surplus is -1.85×1019N·m and -3.06×1019N·m, respectively; The smallest area of earthquake release is the northern Tianshan mountain front fault, which is only 0.11×1019N·m, because there was only one earthquake with a magnitude of 6 in 1907, and the earthquake accumulation reached 11.53×1019N·m, generating an earthquake deficit of 11.42×1019N·m, which could produce a magnitude of 7.3 earthquake. The results show that front margins of the northern Tianshan Fault, the Maidan Fault, the north section of Ertix Fault and the west of Kashihe Fault have a large seismic moment loss and have the potential to generate earthquakes of magnitude 7 and above, while Beiluntai Fault and the middle section of the Keping Fault show a surplus state, and there is no possibility of a strong earthquake in a certain period of time in the future.
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    CAO Xi-lin, GENG Hao-peng, PAN Bao-tian, HU Xiao-fei
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (3): 670-687.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.03.009
    Abstract245)   HTML    PDF(pc) (3996KB)(337)       Save
    The most compelling phenomena for transverse drainage in active fold belt are lateral diversion of channels and development of water/wind gaps. This phenomenon is the result of competition between uplift and erosion, which is controlled by fault vertical/lateral propagation and segment linkage, fault geometry, climate condition and lithology. Previous studies found that the higher the uplift rate is, the greater number of wind gaps form, and the variation of the uplift rate is also critical to the sustainability of transverse rivers. Lateral propagation and linkage of several separate folds in fold-and-thrust belts will lead to defeat of streams and diversion into a trunk drainage; if the trunk is still unable to keep pace with uplift, water gap will be abandoned and left as a wind gap. For lateral propagation of an anticline associated with development of tear faults, the locations of wind/water gaps are likely to coincide with the trace of tear fault and it's not quite clear about the relation between tear faulting and stream deflection. Nonzero dip of the underlying detachment induces a lateral surface slope in the direction of fault propagation, which in turn makes rivers deflection more efficient. Climate and rock erodibility control the water/sediment discharge, and further influence river transport/incision capacity. The changing climate and rock erodibility conditions enable river to abandon the current waterway to create a wind gap unless they could down-cut through a growing fold. However, the role of climate cycle in the formation of wind gap is still controversial. In addition, wind gaps are commonly developed along the divides where parts of longitudinal river have been captured by transverse catchments. Generally, the development of transverse drainages and the formation of wind gaps in nature are result from a combination of tectonic and fluvial process. The wind gap pattern and transverse drainage evolution in fold-and-thrust belts contain plenty of information on fault growth, interaction between tectonic uplift and fluvial erosion, and development of sedimentary basin. Such researches have significant implications in geomorphology, seismic hazard assessment and hydrocarbon exploration. However, there are still many knowledge gaps on the study of transverse river evolution in active fold areas. First, adequate chronology and geomorphic/strata mark to quantify fold growth and erosion is commonly not available, which leads to a poorly constrained rate in both river incision and lateral propagation of growing folds. In addition, more geological and geomorphological processes could influence the evolution of transverse drainages. For examples, (1)during the formation of a young range or anticline, the mechanism of fault-related folding may change over time, e.g. from fault-propagation folding to surface breaking; (2)Besides the knickpoint retreat in downstream, efficient lateral planation and downstream sweep erosion are also important in understanding the erosion of folds by rivers flowing through it. These processes make the development of transverse drainage across folds more complex and should be considered in more comprehensive models. There are lots of rivers originating from the Tibetan plateau and cutting through young surrounding mountains. These surrounding mountains, such as Qilian Mountains, Tianshan Mountains and Longmen Mountains, are ideal areas for the study of transverse river evolution and wind gap formation. In the end, combining with the geological and geomorphological features of the Heli Shan-Jintanan Shan, north of Hexi Corridor, we propose that the Heihe River has experienced deflection, beveling and incision since Mid Pleistocene. These processes have led to 1)the formation of a wind gap on the western Heli Shan, 2)a layer of fluvial gravels from the Qilian Shan preserved on the top surface of the Jintanan Shan, and overlying angular unconformity upon older strata, and 3)the incision of the Heihe River to form the Zhengyi Gorge through the linked structure between Heli Shan and Jintanan Shan. Thus, we propose a general model for the development of transverse drainages in the central Hexi Corridor: deflection-beveling-incision.
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    LUO Ren-yu, CHEN Ji-feng, YIN Xin-xin, LI Shao-hua
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2021, 43 (1): 232-248.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.01.014
    Abstract344)   HTML    PDF(pc) (11689KB)(330)       Save
    A MW6.4(MS7.0)earthquake occurred in Gonghe, Qinghai on 26 April 1990. The Gonghe area is located on the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The geological tectonic movement in this area is mainly affected by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. There has been no earthquakes larger than moderate strength in the Gonghe Basin since the historical records, and there are no large-scale active faults on the surface of the epicenter area, so the earthquake has aroused great concern. No major earthquakes have occurred in the Gonghe area since 1995, but the data of small earthquakes is very rich, which ensures the completion of the research. The TomoDD method combines the double-difference relocation method with seismic tomography, and solves two problems at the same time, one is the problem of fine positioning of the earthquake, and the other is the calculation of the 3D velocity structure of the earth’s crust. In this paper, we collected 63872 P and S wave arrival time data in Gonghe and surrounding area recorded by Qinghai, Gansu seismic networks and temporary seismic array from January 2009 to January 2019. The 3D crustal velocity structure and source position parameters of the region are inversed. The relationship between the geological structure setting of the main shock and the velocity structure and seismicity of the region was analyzed. The results show that the crustal velocity structure in the Gonghe area shows lateral inhomogeneity. The Gonghe mainshock is located in the low-velocity anomaly directly below the Gonghe Basin, close to the high-low-velocity anomaly boundary. There is an obvious high-speed anomaly in the southwest of the mainshock, which thrusts from underground to near-surface in the northeast direction. It is estimated that the Wayuxiang-Lagan concealed fault is located at 35.95°N, the dip of the fault is about 45° at the deep part. It is inferred that the occurrence of the Gonghe main shock is caused by the sliding of the Wayuxiangka-Lagan Fault whose strike is NWW and dip is SSW under the action of horizontal tectonic stress. The high-velocity anomaly is about 5~40km deep underground in the northeast direction of the Riyueshan Fault, and a large number of small earthquakes occurred around the high- and low-velocity transition zone. It is presumed that under the action of the near-horizontal NE-directed tectonic stress, the high- and low-velocity zones were further interacted to generate faults and ground folds, and a large number of small earthquakes occurred during the fusion process.
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    LIANG Shan-shan, XU Zhi-guo, SHENG Shu-zhong, ZHANG Guang-wei, ZHAO-Bo, ZOU Li-ye
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (3): 547-561.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.03.001
    Abstract381)   HTML    PDF(pc) (3702KB)(328)       Save
    A MS6.0 earthquake with shallow focal depth of 16km struck Changning County, Yibin City, Sichuan Province at 22:55: 43(Beijing Time)on 17 June 2019. Although the magnitude of the earthquake is moderate, it caused heavy casualties and property losses to Changning County and its surrounding areas. In the following week, a series of aftershocks with MS≥4.0 occurred in the epicentral area successively. In order to better understand and analyze the seismotectonic structure and generation mechanism of these earthquakes, in this paper, absolute earthquake location by HYPOINVERSE 2000 method is conducted to relocate the main shock of MS6.0 in Changning using the seismic phase observation data provided by Sichuan Earthquake Administration, and focal mechanism solutions for Changning MS6.0 main shock and MS≥4.0 aftershocks are inferred using the gCAP method with the local and regional broadband station waveforms recorded by the regional seismic networks of Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Chongqing Municipality, and Guizhou Province. The absolute relocation results show that the epicenter of the main shock is located at 28.35°N, 104.88°E, and it occurred at an unusual shallow depth about only 6.98km, which could be one of the most significant reasons for the heavier damage in the Changning and adjoining areas. The focal plane solution of the Changning MS6.0 earthquake indicates that the main shock occurred at a thrust fault with a left-lateral strike-slip component. The full moment tensor solution provided by gCAP shows that it contains a certain percentage of non-double couple components. After the occurrence of the main shock, a series of medium and strong aftershocks with MS≥4.0 occurred continuously along the northwestern direction, the fault plane solutions for those aftershocks show mostly strike-slip and thrust fault-type. It is found that the mode of focal mechanism has an obvious characteristic of segmentation in space, which reflects the complexity of the dislocation process of the seismogenic fault. It also shows that the Changning earthquake sequences occurred in the shallow part of the upper crust. Combining with the results from the seismic sounding profile in Changning anticline, which is the main structure in the focal area, this study finds that the existence of several steep secondary faults in the core of Changning anticline is an important reason for the diversity of focal mechanism of aftershock sequences. The characteristics of regional stress field is estimated using the STRESSINVERSE method by the information of focal mechanism solutions from our study, and the results show that the Changning area is subject to a NEE oriented maximum principal stress field with a very shallow dipping and near-vertical minimum principal stress, which is not associated with the results derived from other stress indicators. Compared with the direction of the maximum principal compressive stress axis in the whole region, the direction of the stress field in the focal area rotates from the NWW direction to the NEE direction. The Changning MS6.0 earthquake locates in the area with complex geological structure, where there are a large number of small staggered fault zones with unstable geological structure. Combining with the direction of aftershocks distribution in Changning area, we infer that the Changning MS6.0 earthquake is generated by rupturing of the pre-existing fault in the Changning anticline under the action of the overall large stress field, and the seismogenic fault is a high dip-angle thrust fault with left-lateral strike-slip component, trending NW.
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    ZHANG Bo, HE Wen-gui, LIU Bing-xu, GAO Xiao-dong, PANG Wei, WANG Ai-guo, YUAN Dao-yang
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (2): 455-471.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.013
    Abstract306)   HTML    PDF(pc) (17235KB)(326)       Save
    The Ebomiao Fault is a newly discovered active fault near the block boundary between the Tibetan plateau and the Alashan Block. This fault locates in the southern margin of the Beishan Mountain, which is generally considered to be a tectonically inactive zone, and active fault and earthquake are never expected to emerge, so the discovery of this active fault challenges the traditional thoughts. As a result, studying the new activity of this fault would shed new light on the neotectonic evolution of the Beishan Mountain and tectonic interaction effects between the Tibetan plateau and the Alashan Block. Based on some mature and traditional research methods of active tectonics such as satellite image interpretation, trenches excavation, differential GPS measurement, Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle Photogrammetry(UAVP), and Optical Stimulated Luminescence(OSL)dating, we quantitatively study the new activity features of the Ebomiao Fault.
        Through this study, we complete the fault geometry of the Ebomiao Fault and extend the fault eastward by 25km on the basis of the 20km-fault trace identified previously, the total length of the fault is extened to 45km, which is capable of generating magnitude 7 earthquake calculated from the empirical relationships between earthquake magnitude and fault length. The Ebomiao Fault is manifested as several segments of linear scarps on the land surface, the scarps are characterized by poor continuity because of seasonal flood erosion. Linear scarps are either north- or south-facing scarps that emerge intermittently. Fourteen differential GPS profiles show that the height of the north-facing scarps ranges from (0.22±0.02)m to (1.32±0.1)m, and seven differential GPS profiles show the height of south-facing scarps ranging from (0.33±0.1)m to (0.64±0.1)m. To clarify the causes of the linear scarps with opposite-facing directions, we dug seven trenches across these scarps, the trench profiles show that the south-dipping reverse faults dominate the north-facing scarps, the dipping angles range from 23° to 86°. However, the south-facing scarps are controlled by south-dipping normal faults with dipping angles spanning from 60° to 81°.
        The Ebomiao Fault is dominated by left-lateral strike-slip activity, with a small amount of vertical-slip component. From the submeter-resolution digital elevation models(DEM)constructed by UAVP, the measured left-lateral displacement of 19 gullies in the western segment of the Ebomiao Fault are(3.8±0.5)~(105±25)m, while the height of the north-facing scarps on this segment are(0.22±0.02)~(1.32±0.10)m(L3-L7), the left-lateral displacement is much larger than the scarp height. In this segment, there are three gullies preserving typical left-lateral offsets, one gully among them preserves two levels of alluvial terraces, the terrace riser between the upper terrace and the lower terrace is clear and shows horizontal offset. Based on high-resolution DEM interpretation and displacement restoration by LaDiCaoz software, the left-lateral displacement of the terrace riser is measured to be(16.7±0.5)m. The formation time of the terrace riser is approximated by the OSL age of the upper terrace, which is (11.2±1.5)ka BP at (0.68±0.03)m beneath the surface, and(11.4±0.6)ka at (0.89±0.03)m beneath the surface, the OSL age (11.2±1.5)ka BP at (0.68±0.03)m beneath the surface is more close to the formation time of the upper terrace because of a nearer distance to sediment contact between alluvial fan and eolian sand silt. Taking the (16.7±0.5)m left-lateral displacement of the terrace riser and the upper terrace age (11.2±1.5)ka, we calculate a left-lateral strike-slip rate of(1.52±0.25)mm/a for the Ebomiao Fault. The main source for the slip rate error is that the terrace risers on both walls of the fault are not definitely corresponded. The north wall of the fault is covered by eolian sand, we can only presume the location of terrace riser by geomorphic analysis. In addition, the samples used to calculate slip rate before were collected from the aeolian sand deposits on the north side of the fault, they are not sediments of the fan terraces, so they could not accurately define the formation age of the upper terrace. This study dates the upper terrace directly on the south wall of the fault.
        Since the late Cenozoic, the new activity of the Ebomiao Fault may have responded to the shear component of the relative movement between the Tibetan plateau and the Alashan Block under the macroscopic geological background of the northeastern-expanding of the Tibetan plateau. The north-facing fault scarps are dominated by south-dipping low-angle reverse faults, the emergence of this kind of faults(faults overthrusting from the Jinta Basin to the Beishan Mountain)suggests the far-field effect of block convergence between Tibetan plateau and Alashan Block, which results in the relative compression and crustal shortening. As for whether the Ebomiao Fault and Qilianshan thrust system are connected in the deep, more work is needed.
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    DONG Jin-yuan, LI Chuan-you, ZHENG Wen-jun, LI Tao, LI Xin-nan, REN Guang-xue, LUO Quan-xing
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2021, 43 (3): 521-539.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.03.004
    Abstract368)   HTML    PDF(pc) (11794KB)(311)       Save
    In the process of intense compression and shortening of the orogenic belt, a series of thrust faults and folds related to reverse faults developed in the piedmont. Determining the kinematic characteristics of these reverse faults and folds is of great significance for understanding the deformation mode of the orogenic belt. The Qilian Shan is located on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is the front edge of the plateau expansion. The area has undergone strong tectonic activity since the Late Quaternary, with developed active structures and frequent earthquakes. There are a series of piedmont thrust faults and thrust related folds in the northern and southern margins of Qilian Shan. Compared with a large number of research results of active folds in Tian Shan area, the study of active folds in Qilian Shan is relatively weak. In the northern margin of the Qilian Shan, in addition to the study of individual active folds, most previous studies focused on the thrust faults in the northern margin of the Qilian Shan and the Hexi Corridor, and obtained the active characteristics of these faults. In the southern margin of Qilian Shan, that is, the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin, some studies have been carried out on paleoearthquakes and slip rate of the fault in the southern margin of Zongwulong Shan. However, the study on the late Quaternary folds in this area is relatively weak and there are only some sporadic works.
    Shidiquan anticline is located in the intermountain basin surrounded by Zongwulong Shan and Hongshan in the northern margin of Qaidam Basin. It forms the first row fold structure in front of Zongwulong Shan with Huaitoutala and Delingha anticline. Constraining the tectonic geomorphic features of the Shidiquan anticline is of great significance for studying the crustal shortening in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin and the expansion of the Qilian Shan to the Qaidam Basin. In this paper, the tectonic and geomorphic characteristics of Shidiquan anticline are obtained by means of geological mapping, high-precision differential GPS topographic profile survey, geological profile survey and cosmogenic nuclide dating. Field investigation shows that Shidiquan anticline is an asymmetric fold with steep south limb and gentle north limb, and is controlled by a blind reverse fault dipping northward. The age of the alluvial fan3 obtained from cosmogenic nuclide dating is(158.32±15.54)ka. This age coincides with the Gonghe Movement, indicating that the formation of Shidiquan anticline responds to the Gonghe Movement in the northeast margin of Tibetan plateau. The uplift rate of Shidiquan anticline since 158ka is(0.06±0.01)mm/a, and the shortening rate is(0.05±0.01)mm/a. The folding effect of Shidiquan anticline indicates that the folding of the intermountain basin in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin, similar to the thrust shortening of the piedmont fault, plays an important role in regulating the shortening of the foreland crust.
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    TAN Hong-bo, WANG Jia-pei, YANG Guang-liang, CHEN Zheng-song, WU Gui-ju, SHEN Chong-yang, HUANG Jin-shui
    SEISMOLOGY AND EGOLOGY    2021, 43 (4): 936-957.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.04.013
    Abstract335)   HTML24)    PDF(pc) (16933KB)(310)       Save

    Using the fault model issued by the USGS, and based on the dislocation theory and local crust-upper-mantle model layered by average wave velocity, the co-seismic and post-seismic deformation and gravity change caused by the 2021 Maduo MS7.4 earthquake in an elastic-viscoelastic layered half space are simulated. The simulation results indicate that: the co-seismic deformation and gravity change show that the earthquake fault is characterized by left-lateral strike-slip with normal faulting. The changes are concentrated mainly in 50km around the projection area of the fault on the surface and rapidly attenuate to both sides of the fault, with the largest deformation over 1 000mm on horizontal displacement, 750mm on the vertical displacement, and 150μGal on gravity change. The horizontal displacement in the far field(beyond 150km from the fault)is generally less than 10mm, and attenuates outward slowly. The vertical displacement and gravity change patterns show a certain negative correlation with a butterfly-shaped positive and negative symmetrical four-quadrant distribution. Their attenuation rate is obviously larger than the horizontal displacement, and the value is generally less than 2mm and 1 micro-gal. The post-seismic effects emerge gradually and increase continuously with time, similar to the coseismic effects and showing an increasing trend of inheritance obviously. The post-seismic viscoelastic relaxation effects can influence a much larger area than the co-seismic effect, and the effects during the 400 years after the earthquake in the near-field area will be less than twice of the co-seismic effects, but in the far-field it is more than 3 times. The viscoelastic relaxation effects on the horizontal displacement, vertical displacement and gravity change can reach to 100mm, 130mm and 30 micro-gal, respectively. The co-seismic extremum is mainly concentrated on both sides of the fault, while the post-earthquake viscoelastic relaxation effects are 50km from the fault, the two effects do not coincide with each other. The post-seismic horizontal displacement keeps increasing or decreasing with time, while the vertical displacement and gravity changes are relatively complex, which show an inherited increase relative to the co-seismic effects in the near-field within 5 years after the earthquake, then followed by reverse-trend adjustment, while in the far-field, they are just the opposite, with reverse-trend adjustment first, and then the inherited increase. The horizontal displacement will almost be stable after 100 years, while the viscoelastic effects on the vertical displacement and gravity changes will continue to 300 years after the earthquake. Compared with the GNSS observation results, we can find that the observed and simulated results are basically consistent in vector direction and magnitude, and the consistency is better in the far-field, which may be related to the low resolution of the fault model. The simulation results in this paper can provide a theoretical basis for explaining the seismogenic process of this earthquake using GNSS and gravity data.

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    FENG Shao-ying, LIU Bao-jin, LI Qian, YUAN Hong-ke, ZHU Guo-jun, TIAN Yi-ming, WANG Hong-wei, HOU Li-hua, DENG Xiao-juan, TAN Ya-li
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (3): 581-594.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.03.003
    Abstract435)   HTML    PDF(pc) (4756KB)(309)       Save
    The study area is located at the junction of the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt and the southern margin of the North China Block. In order to study the fine crustal structure and the deep-shallow structural features of faults in this area, we conducted deep seismic reflection profiling with the seismic profile of 100km long, directing NE-SW in Zhumadian City, Henan Province, and got clear lithospheric structure images along the profile. As regards the data acquisition, we applied the geometry of 25m group interval, 1000 recording channels and more than 60 folds. Seismic wave exploding applies the 30kg shots of dynamite source with the borehole depth of 25m. The shot interval is 200m. In data processing, we focused on improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Data processing methods mainly include first break removal, tomographic static correction, abnormal amplitude elimination, amplitude compensation, pre-stack denoising, surface consistent deconvolution, velocity analysis, several iterations of the residual static correction, dip moveout, post-stack time migration and post-stack denoising, etc. The profile with high signal-to-noise ratio was obtained. The reflection wave group characteristics is obvious in the crust, which reflects abundant information about geological structure. Along the profile, the crust is characterized by double-layer reflection structure, and the Moho surface is composed of a series of laminated arc-shaped strong reflections. The thickness of the upper crust is about 14.8~20.7km, and the total thickness of the crust is about 32.0~35.1km. The upper crust is dominated by the inclined, densely stratified or arc-shaped reflections. The lower crust is dominated by arc-shaped and inclined reflection, and there is a reflective transparent zone under the Moho surface. The reflection sequences with different directions and shapes in the upper crust constitute the nappe structure in southwest segment and the structural model of two concaves with one uplift in NE segment, which correspond to the north Qinling nappe, Zhumadian-Huaibin depression, Pingyu-Xiping uplift and a secondary depression, respectively. There are abundant arc-shaped reflection sequences in the lower crust, which may represent multi-stage magmatic activities. The deep seismic reflection profile shows that faults in the upper crust are well developed. According to the characteristics of reflected wave field in the profile, four groups of fault structure which contain ten faults with different scales are interpreted. Among them, faults FP1, FP2 and FP3 constitute the thrust fault system in the northern margin of Qinling Mountains, and FP5 and FP7 are boundary faults of Zhumadian-Huaibin depression. These faults are all developed within the upper crust. In addition, the Fault FPM is a large fault that cuts through the lower crust and Moho surface. The deep seismic reflection profile reveals the crustal structure and deep-shallow structural features of faults at the junction of the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt and the southern margin of the North China block, which provides seismological evidence for the analysis of structural differences, the deep earth's interior processes and deep-shallow structural relationships between the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt and the southern margin of the North China block. The lower crust of the study area is divided into two parts by deep faults that dislocate the Moho surface. These two parts have distinct reflective structures, suggesting that the area has experienced intense complex tectonic movements. The faults in the upper crust control the formation of basin-mountain structure and stratigraphic deposition of this area. And deep faults in the crust that disrupt Moho surface create conditions for the upwelling and energy exchange of deep materials. All of these have regulated the composition of material and the distribution of energy in the crust. The deep faults cutting through the lower crust and Moho surface and the south-dipping arc-shaped and inclined strong reflection sequences developed in the lower crust should indicate the large-scale subduction of the southern margin of the North China block towards the south-trending Qinling orogenic belt.
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    ZHAO Tao, WANG Ying, MA Ji, SHAO Ruo-tong, XU Yi-fei, HU Jing
    SEISMOLOGY AND EGOLOGY    2021, 43 (4): 790-805.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.04.004
    Abstract1430)   HTML45)    PDF(pc) (5589KB)(298)       Save

    On May 22, 2021, an MS7.4 earthquake occurred in Maduo County, Guoluo Prefecture, Qinghai Province, which is the biggest earthquake in mainland China since the 2008 Wenchuan MS8.0 earthquake. It occurred in the Bayan Har block in the northern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, indicating that the Bayan Har block is still the main area for strong earthquakes activity in mainland China. In order to study the source characteristics and seismogenic structure of the Maduo earthquake, we used the double-difference location method to analyze the spatial distribution of earthquake sequences within 15 days after the mainshock. At the same time, the focal mechanism solutions of 15 aftershocks with MS≥4.0 are also obtained by full-waveform moment tensor inversion. We hope to provide seismological evidences with reference value for the study of the dynamic process of the Madao MS7.4 earthquake and the geological tectonic activities on the northern side of the Bayan Hala block.

    The results of moment tensor inversion show that the moment magnitude of the Maduo earthquake is about 7.24, the centroid depth is 13km, and the best double-couple solution is strike 283°, dip 59° and slip -4° for the nodal plane I, and strike 15°, dip 86° and slip -149° for the nodal plane Ⅱ, which indicates a strike-slip earthquake event. According to the strike of the fault and the distribution of aftershocks in the source area, we infer that the nodal plane I, which strikes NWW, is the seismogenic fault plane. The focal mechanism results of 15 aftershocks show that the aftershock sequence is mainly strike-slip type, which is consistent with the main shock. Meanwhile, there are also some other types reflecting the local complex structure. The differences in the direction and type of focal mechanism may reveal changes in the direction and characteristic of the fault from north to south. The azimuth of the P-axis is NE-SWW, and the azimuth of the T-axis is NNW-SSE. Both plunge angles are within 30° and close to horizontal, which shows that the activities of the Maduo earthquake sequence are mainly controlled by the horizontal compression stress field in the northeast-southwest direction. From NWW to SEE, the dip angle of fault plane increases gradually from 77° to 88°, and the northern segment dips to SW.

    Based on the results of relocation, moment tensor inversion and geological structure, preliminary conclusion can be drawn that the seismogenic fault of the Maduo earthquake may be the Kunlun Mountain Pass-Jiangcu Fault, which is a left-handed strike-slip fault. At the same time, there are certain segmental differences along the fault. The strike of the northern section is mainly NW, that of the middle section is NWW, and the southern section is near E-W, and the fault plane dips to the southwest with the dip angle increasing gradually from NWW to SEE.

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    CHANG Hao, CHANG Zu-feng, LIU Chang-wei
    SEISMOLOGY AND EGOLOGY    2021, 43 (6): 1435-1458.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.06.006
    Abstract630)   HTML20)    PDF(pc) (19495KB)(298)       Save

    The relationship between large-scale landslides and active faults has attracted much attention. From the point of view of active tectonics and disaster geology, the late Quaternary activity of the Jinsha River fault zone is investigated and studied, and the relationship between large-scale landslides and activity of the Jinsha River fault zone is emphatically analyzed. The Jinsha River fault zone was formed during the closure of the Paleotethys Ocean. According to the distribution of the 5km-wide ophiolitic melange zone, the ultramafic rock zone, and the local migmatization and progressive metamorphism around the Variscan intermediate acid intrusive rock mass distributed along the fault, it is inferred that the fault zone was once a strongly active superlithospheric fault zone with obvious compressive properties. The Jinsha River fault zone is a large-scale, long-term active suture structure, with many branches, forming a 50km wide structural fracture zone. Affected by the eastward compression of the Tibet Plateau, it has changed into a strike-slip fault zone characterized by dextral shear since Pliocene. In the study area, the fault landforms are clear along the Zengdatong, Xulong, Nizhong, Lifu-riyu, Langzhong and Guxue faults, which are mainly manifested as straight fault trough, linear ridge, fault scarp, and directional aligned fault facets. Results of field geological and geomorphological investigation and chronology show that the late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits are faulted, indicating the faults are active during the late Quaternary and dominated by dextral strike-slip with an average horizontal slip rate of 3.5~4.3mm/a in Holocene. The study area is located in the middle and north of the world-famous Jinsha River suture of the north-south structural belt in Sichuan, Yunnan and Tibet, and the geological structural conditions are very complex. The main structural line is distributed in NS direction, interwoven with NE and NW faults and fold axes in network shape, and the structure is complex. Strong neotectonic movement, huge topographic elevation difference, steep mountains, dry-hot valleys microclimate and other factors have caused serious internal dynamic geological disasters on both banks of Jinsha River. The landslide in the area has the characteristics of high frequency, large scale and serious damage. There are 23 large-scale and super large-scale landslides in the main stream and its tributaries of Jinsha River within the 38km-long section from Narong to Rongxue. Most of them are super large-scale landslides with a volume of more than 10 million cubic meters, even have a volume of more than 100 million cubic meters. Most of the landslides are located within 1km on both sides of faults, and many of them are developed on the fault zone. The occurrence of these large-scale landslides is closely related to the long-term activity, evolution history and complex structure of Jinsha River fault zone along the river, as a result, the rock mass structure gets fragmented and the continuous tectonic activity becomes the main cause of landslides. Active faulting is the fundamental controlling factor for the occurrence of large landslides along the river, especially for large landslides, and is an important internal dynamic condition for the formation of landslides. Further analysis of the fault structure shows that landslide is closely related to the movement evolution history of Jinsha River fault zone. Special structural combination parts(mechanical mechanism)such as closely adjacent faults, acute angle area of fault intersection, right turning parts of the faults and the intersection area between the main faults and the transverse faults are the key sites where the tectonic stress is easy to concentrate, thus conducive to generating large-scale landslides. Many large landslides occur in these structural parts. The controlling effect of active faults on landslides is not only embodied in the process of large earthquakes, but also can lead to the intensive occurrence of large and super large landslides in a natural state(non seismic action). This research has positive scientific significance for understanding the formation mechanism and development law of landslides on both sides of Jinsha River, and for understanding the relationship between fault activities and large landslides.

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    SU Gui-wu, Janise Rodgers, TIAN Qing, QI Wen-hua, Philip England, Timothy Sim, John Young, WANG Dong-ming, LI Zhi-qiang, FENG Xi-jie, SUN Lei, CHEN Kun, Emily So, Barry Parsons, ZHAO Jin-li, SHI Jian-liang, YUAN Zhi-xiang, Yue Cao, ZHOU Qi, WEI Ben-yong, David Milledge, Alexander Densmore
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (6): 1446-1473.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.06.012
    Abstract550)   HTML    PDF(pc) (6864KB)(291)       Save
    Earthquake disaster reduction approach in China is essentially top-down, which is highly effective in mobilizing large-scale disaster reduction activities. However, the overall resilience of a society to earthquake also heavily depends on actions from various bottom-up components/actors(e.g., family, community), pointing to the strong need for a governance model that integrates the existing top-down approach with broad bottom-up engagement of grass-roots and the public. To accumulate research evidences for developing that governance, the overall objective of the work of creating a seismic scenario for Weinan City, Shaanxi Province, China(the Weinan scenario work, in short), was thus planned to address in particular the following two major gaps in earthquake disaster risk reduction in China: (i)between top-down and bottom-up earthquake disaster risk reduction(DRR)approaches, with a particular emphasis on the weak bottom-up aspect, and(ii)between science and earthquake DRR policies and practices, especially the insufficiency in the research and associated applications relevant to various bottom-up components/actors.
    Using the paradigm of trans-disciplinary, participatory action research, the Weinan scenario work delivered this objective through direct interactions and close collaborations between two different groups of people: multi-disciplinary UK-USA-China collaboration research team and various local DRR practitioners and other stakeholders. The overall progresses include: 1)Using pan-participatory methodology, the two groups worked closely together to co-identify earthquake risk, co-explore pathways to risk reduction and resilience building, and so on, which ensured the reliability of the scenario results and the local context-appropriateness and then applicability of the scenario work's DRR recommendations; meanwhile, with action research process, the two groups realized synchronous interactions and seamless connections between the three large aspects in risk science of risk assessment, risk communication, and risk reduction practice improvement, which have often been conducted separately, thereby resulted in a kind of direct, immediate, and in-situ/on-site “science research into policies and practices”; 2)By serving both governments and bottom-up actors, and by looking at earthquake DRR issues from multi-scale point of view, the two groups co-addressed how to improve both top-down and bottom-up earthquake DRR policies and practices. Especially, zooming in on community-based disaster risk reduction(CBDRR), school-based DRR, family-based DRR, and broad disaster reduction education-the broadest and most sustainable linkages between top-down approach and bottom-up pathway to earthquake DRR, a large scale of specialized surveys and other relevant investigations were conducted, a series of current baselines and future improvement directions were identified; 3)Focusing on bettering disaster reduction education and improving long-term risk communication, the two groups co-created two versions of storytelling-led and latest science-grounded scenario narratives that are different in both contents and presentation styles/formats: one for government officials, the other for the general public. By constructing the plot of the story to properly highlight the key earthquake risk problems facing Weinan, we hope non-technical readers can easily understand research findings and better follow DRR recommendations provided, further facilitating “science into policies and practices”; by unfolding and illustrating the disaster-amplification or superimposing effects produced by a distinct local vulnerable social element-poor rural family with left-behind children, we hope readers can understand earthquake risk as deeply and comprehensively as possible from multi-perspectives; by incorporating elements of sensibility, emotion, humanity, and artistic appeal into rational but often “dry” sciences, we hope to help intensify resonance, build consensus, inspire emotion, improve DRR attitudes, foster DRR values, and then motivate DRR action and participation; and most importantly to inspire long-lasting learning, reflection, and action improvement among local population-the most direct, fundamental, and broad actors for reducing local earthquake disaster risk.
    The participatory action research-guided Weinan scenario work has the utility of “throwing out a brick to attract a jade” for China's earthquake DRR field, it also provides the international similar studies with valuable experience and implications from China context.
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    CHEN Jian-long, ZHANG Dong-li, ZHOU Yu
    SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY    2020, 42 (2): 333-345.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.006
    Abstract544)   HTML    PDF(pc) (4243KB)(290)       Save
    Most great(M≥8)earthquakes during modern times have occurred in interplate regions or major continental collision zones, such as Sumatra, the Japanese island arc or the San Andreas fault zone. Continental faults slip at a much lower rate than boundary faults, but they also have the potential of generating large earthquakes. For example, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9, the slip rate of seismic fault is less than 3mm/a. They also have the potential to be significantly deadlier than those on plate boundaries because of the long repeat times and lack of preparedness. The January 23rd 1556 Huaxian earthquake in Shaanxi Province, central China, is the deadliest in history with an estimated death toll of ~830 000 from building collapse, land-sliding, famine, and disease. The earthquake occurred in the graben of the Weihe River.
        The Weihe Graben in Shaanxi Province has recorded multiple earthquakes in history, whereas most active faults within the graben have a low slip rate over geological times (~1mm/a). The slip rate of faults is an important parameter for assessing the risk of earthquakes and the interval between major earthquake recurrences. In order to obtain the quantitative information of faults slip rate, traditional geological methods or geodetic observation techniques can be used. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar(InSAR), as a modern geodetic observation technology, has the characteristics of all-weather and day-and-night imaging capability, wide spatial coverage, fine resolution, and high measurement accuracy. InSAR offers the potential to measure interseismic slip rates on faults at a resolution of millimetres per year. In this study, we use InSAR data to analyze the present deformation of the Kouzhen-Guanshan, Weihe and North Qinling faults in the central part of the graben.
        We collected 32 European Space Agency(ESA's)Envisat ASAR images from descending track 161 between 2003 and 2010, and processed them using ROI_PAC. The precise orbit determination from the Delft Institute for Earth Oriented Space Research(DEOS)was applied to correct for orbital effects. The topographic contribution was simulated and removed using the 90m resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission(SRTM)Digital Elevation Model(DEM)from CGIAR-SCI. Each interferogram was downsampled to 64 looks in the range direction (1 280m). Before phase unwrapping, a weighted power spectrum filter was applied to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The branch-cut method was used for phase unwrapping. Phase unwrapping errors were checked by summing around a closed loop. All the major unwrapping errors were identified and corrected manually. We obtained a total of 98 interferograms with a spatial baseline of smaller than 300m, and selected 33 interferograms whose coherence is well preserved for time-series analysis. The time-series analysis was implemented using the π-RATE software package. It uses the geocoded interferograms from ROI_PAC to create a minimum spanning tree(MST)network, from which the orbital and topographically-correlated atmospheric errors are estimated. The MST network connects all epochs with the most coherent interferograms,including no closed loops of interferograms. The network approach is able to improve the estimation of orbital error by ~9% compared to the independent interferograms approach. The orbital errors are empirically modelled as planar or quadratic ramps. The topographically-correlated atmospheric correction was applied to each interferogram after having corrected for the orbital errors. Following creating a minimum spanning tree network, correcting for orbital and topographically-correlated atmospheric errors, and calculating the covariance matrix, we obtained the 7-year average slip rate of the faults that we are focused on.
        Our results show that the faults across the Weihe graben all have a small slip rate of less than 2mm/a. The Kouzhen-Guanshan Fault does not show any evident deformation signal. The Weihe Fault seems to show 1mm/a normal faulting in the satellite line-of-sight direction. In addition, we find ~10mm/a surface subsidence of the Xi'an City between 2003 and 2010. We use the stable Ordos block as a reference to assess the accuracy of our InSAR time-series analysis. Assuming the Ordos block has no internal deformation, we calculated the error of the InSAR rate map to be (-0.1±1)mm/a, indicating that our result is reliable. This paper presents a preliminary result of the present deformation of the Weihe Graben. InSAR is a powerful technique for monitoring active faults on a timescale of tens of years, and can be used for seismic hazard assessment in the future.
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