Table of Content

    20 October 2018, Volume 40 Issue 5
    XU Yue-ren, HE Hong-lin, LI Wen-qiao, ZHANG Wei-heng, TIAN Qin-jian
    2018, 40(5):  945-966.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.001
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    The Hongtong earthquake occurring on 25 September 1303 in both Linfen Basin (LFB)and Taiyuan Basin (TYB)in Shanxi Graben is the first M8.0 earthquake based on the Chinese literature in China mainland, 392 years later, the Linfen M7.5 earthquake occurred on 18 May 1695 in Linfen Basin with its macro-epicenter distance of only 40km south of the Hongtong earthquake. Due to their close macro-epicenter distance and shortly interval of 392a, it attracted continuous attention to the geoscientists around Southern Shanxi Graben, southeastern Orods Plate. This paper combines the historical documents and interpreting the coseismic triggered disasters in study area. The results show that:1)the number of building damaged in the southern TYB and Lingshi Uplift (LSU)during 1303 Hongtong earthquake is similar to that of the LFB, indicating that the TYB and LSU maybe suffered the same or even worse earthquake disaster losses during the 1303 Hongtong earthquake. While the 1695 Linfen earthquake is confined within the LFB and south of Hongtong County; 2)More than 11 000 loess landslides were triggered by the 1303 Hongtong earthquake event between LFB and TYB, which is consistent with the literature records. We suggested the macro-epicenter of the 1303 Hongtong earthquake should move about 60km northward from the present location (36.3°N, 111.7°E)near Hongtong County to the new location (36.8°N, 111.7°E) between Huozhou City and Lingshi County, the new macro-epicenter location can reasonably explain the large-scale centralized earthquake-triggered landslides during the event. The landslides had aggravated the severity of the loss; 3)Our result helps to understand the spatial distribution of the two strong earthquakes and the relationship between them, especially the distribution map of earthquake-induced loess landslides by 1303 Hongtong earthquake extracted using the Google Earth images, which supports the amendment of the macro-epicenter.
    WANG Hu, RAN Yong-kang, CHEN Li-chun, LIANG Ming-jian, GAO Shuai-po, LI Yan-bao, XU Liang-xin
    2018, 40(5):  967-979.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.002
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    The Anninghe Fault has been suggested as an important segment of the fault system along the eastern boundary of the Sichuan-Yunnan faulted block in the southeastern region of the Tibetan plateau. Reliable determination of the Late Quaternary slip rate on the Anninghe Fault is very helpful and significant for revealing deformation mechanism and kinematic characteristics of the Sichuan-Yunnan faulted block, which further helps us understand fault activity and seismic potential of the region. However, previous studies were focused mainly on the northern segment of the Anninghe Fault, while slip rate on its southern segment has been less studied. Therefore, in this paper, we chose two sites at Dashuigou and Maoheshan on the southern segment of the Anninghe Fault, and used high-resolution images of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)photogrammetry technology, detailed field survey, multiple paleoseismic trenching and radiocarbon dating methods to constrain slip rate on the southern fault segment of the Anninghe Fault. Specifically, we suggest that the slip rate at the Dashuigouo site is narrowly constrained to be~4.4mm/a since about 3300aBP based on a linear regression calculation method, and speculate that a slip rate of 2.6~5.2mm/a at the Maoheshan site would be highly possible, although we poorly constrained the whole deformation amount of the two branch faults at the Maoheshan site from multiple paleoseismic trenching. The data at the two sites on the southern segment show a consistent slip rate compared with that of the northern segment of the Anninghe Fault. Moreover, considering a similar paleoseismic recurrence interval on the two segments of the Anninghe Fault from previous studies, we further suggest that the fault activity and deformation pattern on the two segments of the Annignhe Fault appears to be well consistent, which is also in agreement with the regional tectonic deformation.
    YANG Hai-bo, YANG Xiao-ping, HUANG Xiong-nan, HU Zong-kai
    2018, 40(5):  980-998.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.003
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    The Fodongmiao-Hongyazi Fault (FHF)is one of the most active faults of the northern Qilian thrust fault zone. The 1609 Hongyazi M7 1/4 earthquake occurred on the east segment of the FHF, an area with a complex geometry at the Mayinghe River site. The seismogenic pattern of this earthquake revealed by complex surface ruptures remains unclear. In this paper, we focus on active tectonic deformation around the Hujiatai anticline (HA)in the Mayinghe River site. Combining with topographic survey via dGPS across deformed terraces and alluvial fans, a field survey of the geological section across the HA, the characteristics of the active fold and several sub-faults were constrained. Meanwhile, combined with the seismic reflection profiles passing through the anticline, the correspondence relationship between surface expressions of this tectonic and the deep structure was discussed. According to our research, the HA is a result of northward propagation of the range-front thrust fault F1. At the same time, a thrust fault F2 with dextral strike-slip motion and a thrust fault F4 were formed on the east side and north side of the HA, respectively. These two active faults accommodated local deformation. Trench results and 14C dating reveal that the 1609 Hongyazi M7 1/4 earthquake ruptured the T1 terrace in the Huangcaoba site. Combined with previous field investigations and literature about the 1609 Hongyazi earthquake, we suggest that this earthquake occurred on the range-front fault F1, and the depth of the hypocenter may be about 8~22km.
    WANG Si-yu, AI Ming, WU Chuan-yong, LEI Qi-yun, ZHANG Hui-ping, REN Guang-xue, LI Chuan-you, REN Zhi-kun
    2018, 40(5):  999-1017.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.004
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    Traditional method to generate Digital Elevation Model (DEM)through topographic map and topographic measurement has weak points such as low efficiency, long operating time and small range. The emergence of DEM-generation technology from high resolution satellite image provides a new method for rapid acquisition of large terrain and geomorphic data, which greatly improves the efficiency of data acquisition. This method costs lower compared with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), has large coverage compared with SfM (Structure from Motion). However, there is still lack of report on whether the accuracy of DEM generated from stereo-imagery satisfies the quantitative research of active tectonics. This research is based on LPS (Leica Photogrammetry Suit)software platform, using Worldview-2 panchromatic stereo-imagery as data source, selecting Kumishi Basin in eastern Tianshan Mountains with little vegetation as study area. We generated 0.5m resolution DEM of 5-km swath along the newly discovered rupture zone at the south of Kumishi Basin, measured the height of fault scarps on different levels of alluvial fans based on the DEM, then compared with the scarp height measured by differential GPS survey in the field to analyze the accuracy of the extracted DEM. The results show that the elevation difference between the topographic profiles derived from the extracted DEM and surveyed by differential GPS ranges from -2.82 to 4.87m. The shape of the fault scarp can be finely depicted and the deviation is 0.30m after elevation correction. The accuracy of measuring the height of fault scarps can reach 0.22m, which meets the need of high-precision quantitative research of active tectonics. It provides great convenience for rapidly obtaining fine geometry, profiles morphology, vertical dislocations of fault and important reference for sites selection for trench excavation, slip rate, and samples. This method has broad prospects in the study of active tectonics.
    ZHANG Bo, WANG Ai-guo, YUAN Dao-yang, WU Ming, LIU Xiao-feng, ZHENG Long
    2018, 40(5):  1018-1039.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.005
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    The NE margin of Tibetan plateau outspreads northeastward in late Cenozoic. The west Qinling locates at intervening zone among Tibetan plateau, Sichuan Basin and Ordos block, and is bounded by East Kunlun Fault in the southwest, the north margin of West Qinling Fault in the northeast, and the Longmen Shan Fault in the southeast. The west Qinling has been experiencing intense tectonic deformation since late Cenozoic, accompanying by uplift of mountains, downward incision of rivers, frequent moderate-strong earthquakes, vertical and horizontal motion of secondary faults, and so on. A series of "V-shape" faults are developed in the transfer zone between East Kunlun Fault and north margin of West Qinling Fault. The NWW-NW striking faults include Tazang Fault, Bailongjiang Fault, Guanggai Shan-Die Shan Fault, and Lintan-Dangchang Fault; EW-NEE-NE striking faults include Ha'nan-Qingshanwan-Daoqizi Fault, Wudu-Kangxian Fault, Liangdang-Jiangluo Fault, and Lixian-Luojiapu Fault. Among them, the Southern Guanggai Shan-Die Shan Fault (SGDF)is one of the principle branch which accommodates strain partitioning between the East Kunlun Fault and the north margin of west Qinling Fault. Although some works have been done and published, the geometry of SGDF is still obscure due to forest cover, bad traffic, natural and manmade reworks. In this paper, we collected remote sensing images with various resolutions, categories, imaging time. The selected images include composite map of Landsat image (resolution is 28.5m among 1984-1997, and 14.5m among 1999-2003), Landsat-8 OLI image (15/30m), Gaofen-1 (2m/8m), Pleiades (0.5m/2m), DEM (~25m)and Google Earth image (submeter resolution). After that, we reinforced tectonic information of those images by Envi5.2 software, then we interpreted SGDF from those images. As indoor interpretation fulfilled, we testified indoor interpretation results through geomorphological and geological investigation. Finally, we got fault distribution of SGDF. Conclusions are as follows:First, remote sensing image selection and management is crucial to indoor interpretation, and image resolution is the only factor we commonly consider before, however, things have changed in places where there is complex weather and dense vegetation. Image categories, imaging time and bands selected for compositing in pretreatment and etc. should all be taken into consideration for better interpretation. Second, SGDF distributes from Lazikou town in the west, extending through Pingding town, Zhou County, Huama town, then terminating at Majie town of Wudu district in the east, the striking direction is mainly NWW, and it could be roughly divided into 3 segments:Lazikou-Heiyusi segment, Pingding-Huama segment, and Huama-Majie segment, with their length amounting to 47km, 32.5km, 47km, respectively. The arrangement pattern between Lazikou-Heiyusi segment and Pingding-Huama segment is right-stepping, and the arrangement pattern is left-stepping bending between Pingding-Huama segment and Huama-Majie segment. Third, SGDF controlled magnificent macro-topography, such as fault cliff, fault facet, which often constitute the boundary of intermontane basins or erosional surfaces to west of Minjiang River. Micro-geomorphic expressions were severely eroded and less preserved, including fault scarps, fault troughs, sinistral offset gullies and geomorphic surfaces. Finally, SGDF mainly expresses left-lateral dominated motion, only some short branch faults with diverting striking direction exhibit vertical dominated motion. The left-lateral dominated component with little vertical motion of SGDF is consistent with regional NWW-striking faults as Tazang Fault, Bailongjiang Fault and Lintan-Dangchang Fault, also in coincidence with regional boundary faults such as east Kunlun Fault and north margin of west Qinling Fault, illustrating regional deformation field is successive in west Qinling, and NWW striking faults show good inheritance and transitivity on differential slip rate between east Kunlun Fault and west Qinling Fault. The geometry of SGDF makes quantitative studies possible, and also provides scientific basis for keeping construction away from fault traces.
    HUANG Wei-liang, YANG Xiao-ping, LI Sheng-qiang, YANG Hai-bo
    2018, 40(5):  1040-1058.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.006
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    As the most active intracontinental orogenic belt in the world, the Tianshan orogenic belt has complex and diverse internal structural deformation patterns, and among them, the particularly striking is the linear straight U-type valley landscapes which cut inside the mountains by multiple NW-SE and ENE-WSW strike-slip faults. Many of the modern strong earthquakes in Tianshan orogenic belt are closely related to these strike-slip faults. Therefore, it is important to elaborate the activity characteristics of these faults to understand the deformation process inside the Tianshan Mountains belt. This paper focuses on one of the NW-SE right-lateral strike-slip fault (the Kaiduhe Fault), which lies inside the southeastern Tianshan. Typical offset landforms and scarp lineaments on the western segment of the Kaiduhe Fault can be used to study the activity characteristics and strike-slip rate. In particular, the fault cuts through the late Quaternary alluvial fans and a series of river gullies were right-laterally faulted, producing dextral offsets ranging from 3 to 248m. A digital elevation model (DEM)with resolution of 0.25m was established by using multi-angle photogrammetry technique to stripe about 12km linear tectonic landforms along the Kaiduhe Fault. Geological and geomorphic mapping in DEM with 22 high-resolution dextral offset measurements reveals that the dextral offsets can be divide into four groups of 3.5m, 7.0m, 11.8m and 14.5m. It is presumed from the approximately uniformly-spaced offsets that the coseismic offset was 3~4m. In addition, the exposure age of an older alluvial fan surface was about 235.7ka by in situ 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide method. Combining the exposure ages and the maximum dextral offset of 248m, we found that the strike-slip rate of the Kaiduhe Fault is about 1mm/a. It is found by this study that the Kaiduhe Fault plays an important role in regulating SN compression deformation within Tianshan Mountains, and it should also be the main stress-strain accumulation area which has the risk of occurrence of strong earthquake.
    ZHANG Lei, GAO Xiao-qi, BAO Chuang, LI Jing, LI Xu-mao
    2018, 40(5):  1059-1071.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.007
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    The migrating and enriching of fault gas during dynamic load-unload process are important indexes to evaluate the stress state and tectonic activity of underground medium. The Hutubi underground gas storage provides a natural experiment site for the analysis of the relationship between the gas geochemistry and the stress-strain status. In this paper, the soil gas concentrations of Rn, CO2, Hg and H2 during the gas injection in the Hutubi underground gas storage were analyzed. The results show that the soil gas contents and changing trend are close to the background value in the non-reservoir area and fault zone, which may reveal the weak activity of the fault. Significantly higher concentrations of soil gas H2 and Hg are observed in the gas storage area, where H2 maximum reaches 5.551×10-4 and Hg maximum reaches 53ng/m3. Moreover, the abnormal soil gas H2 and Hg measurement locations are more consistent. The variation trends of soil gas Hg, H2, Rn, and CO2may be related to the different gas generation and response mechanisms. The concentrations of soil gas H2 and Hg are sensitive to the variation of pressure and the development of cracks in the underground gas storage, and they can reveal gas injection's effect on fault activity. This study provides a new basis for analyzing the influence of gas injection and withdrawal in Hutubi underground gas storage on fault activity.
    LEI Sheng-xue, RAN Yong-kang, LI Yan-bao, XU Liang-xin, GUO Wei, XIE Jing-bo
    2018, 40(5):  1072-1085.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.008
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    Ganyanchi (Salt Lake)basin, located in the central part of the Haiyuan Fault, northeastern corner of the Tibetan plateau, is the largest pull-apart basin along this fault. Due to its location in northeastern Tibet, the Ganyanchi Basin preserves an important sedimentary record of tectonism and climate change associated with progressive growth of the Tibetan plateau. The sediments of this basin also contain abundant information regarding the deformational history of the bounding strike-slip fault, i.e., the Haiyuan Fault. Therefore, a detailed study on the depository history of the Ganyanchi Basin is of great importance. Earlier studies only focused on regional geological mapping and paleoseismic research, however, no sedimentologic or chronological work has been done in the Ganyanchi pull-apart basin. To address this problem, we drilled a 328m-deep borehole, named HY-C8, at the south of the cross-basin fault and near the active depocenter, and employ magnetostratigraphic analyses and seismic reflection data to constrain the age and to deduce the evolving history of the basin. The deep borehole profile shows that the stratigraphy of the basin can be divided into three main units (Unit Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ), which began to deposit at about 2.76, 2.33 and 1.78Ma, respectively. The grain size of the deposits manifests an upward thinning trend, which probably implies the profile is a characteristic retrogradational sequence. The magnetic susceptibility results indicate that the playa lake probably was formed at about 1.78Ma ago, the corresponding playa-lake deposits recorded more than eight high susceptibility sections, which are most likely due to the iron sulfides (such as melnikovite, pyrrhotine etc.)that were usually produced in high-lake-level and reduction conditions. A combination of boreholes and shallow seismic reflection data indicates that the Ganyanchi Basin is mainly controlled by the cross-basin fault and its northern boundary fault, and the depocenter, probably deeper than 550m, lies in between these two faults. Finally, the sedimentary facies of the Ganyanchi Basin experienced a four-stage evolving history:eluvial facies (before~2.76Ma)to alluvial fan facies (about 2.76~2.33Ma)to distal alluvial fan facies (2.33~1.78Ma)to playa lake facies (1.78Ma~present). Based on accumulation rates, the stage of playa lake can be divided into two subchrons, and the depositional rates of subchrons 2 (about 0.78Ma~present)is as high as 232.5m/Ma, which probably was caused by the activity along the cross-basin fault in the Ganyanchi Basin.
    LIU Fang-bin, QU Jun-hao, LI Ya-jun, FAN Xiao-yi, MIAO Qing-jie
    2018, 40(5):  1086-1099.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.009
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    Many small earthquakes occurred intensively and continuously and formed an earthquake sequence after the ML3.8 earthquake happened at Rushan County, Shandong Province on October 1, 2013. Up to March, 2017, more than 13 000 events have been recorded, with 3 429 locatable shocks, of which 31 events with ML ≥ 3.0. This sequence is rarely seen in East China for its extraordinary long duration and the extremely high frequency of aftershocks. To track the developing tendency of the earthquake sequence accurately, 20 temporary seismometers were arranged to monitor the sequence activities around the epicenter of the sequence since May 6, 2014. Firstly, this paper adopts double difference method to relocate the 1 418 earthquakes of ML ≥ 1.0 recorded by temporary seismometers in the Rushan earthquake sequence (May 7, 2014 to December 31, 2016), the result shows that the Rushan earthquake sequence mainly extends along NWW-SEE and forms a rectangular activity belt of about 4km long and 3km wide. In addition, the seismogenic fault of Rushan earthquake sequence stretches along NWW-SEE with nearly vertical strike-slip movement and a small amount of thrust component. Then we apply the P-wave initial motion and CAP to invert the focal mechanism of earthquakes with ML ≥ 1.5 in the study area. The earthquakes can be divided into several categories, including 3 normal fault earthquakes (0.9%), 3 normal-slip earthquakes (0.9%), 229 strike-slip earthquakes (65.8%), 18 thrust fault earthquakes (5.2%), 37 thrust-slip earthquakes (10.6%)and 58 undefined (16.6%). Most earthquakes had a strike-slip mechanism in Rushan (65.8%), which is one of the intrinsic characteristics of the stress field. According to the focal mechanism solutions, we further utilized the LSIB method (Linear stress inversion bootstrap)to invert the stress tensor of Rushan area. The result shows that the azimuth and plunge of three principal stress (σ1, σ2, σ3) axes are 25°, 10°; 286°, 45°; 125°, 43°, respectively. Based on the stress field inversion results, we calculated the focal mechanism solutions consistency parameter (θ)and the angle (θ1)between σ1 and P axis. The trend lines of θ and θ1 were relatively stable with small fluctuation near the average line over time. Furthermore, the earthquake sequence can be divided into three stages based on θ and θ1 values. The first stage is before September 16, 2014, and the variation of the θ and θ1 values is relatively smooth with short period. All focal mechanism solutions of the three ML ≥ 3.0 earthquakes exhibited consistence. The second stage started from September 16, 2014 to July 1, 2015, the fluctuation range of θ and θ1 values is larger than that of the first stage with a relative longer period. The last stage is after July 1, 2015, values of θ and θ1 gradually changed to a periodic change, three out of the four ML ≥ 3.0 earthquakes (strike-slip type)displayed a good consistency. Spatially, earthquakes occurred mainly in green, yellow-red regions, and the focal mechanism parameters consistency θ was dominant near the green region (around the average value), which presents a steady state, and the spatial locations are concordant with the distribution of θ value. Moreover, all of ML ≥ 3.0 earthquakes are located in the transitional region from the mean value to lower value area or region below the mean value area, which also indicates the centralized stress field of the region.
    YANG Wen, CHENG Jia, YAO Qi, CUI Ren-sheng, LONG Hai-yun, HAN Yan-yan
    2018, 40(5):  1100-1114.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.010
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    Based on the phase report of Xinjiang Seismic Network, the Hutubi MS6.2 earthquake sequence ML ≥ 1.0 was relocated by the HypoDD method. The results show that the aftershocks were distributed along NE and NW direction. The aftershocks were in the depths of 5~15km. In addition, by using the digital waveforms of Xinjiang Seismic Network, the best double-couple focal mechanism of the main shock and some aftershocks of MS ≥ 3.8 were determined by the CAP method. Based on the above studies, the source depth, focal mechanism and aftershock distribution of the Hutubi MS6.2 earthquake were analyzed and the seismogenic structure was discussed. The nodal plane parameters of the best double-couple focal mechanism are strike 144°, dip 26°, rake 118°, and strike 293°, dip 67°, rake 77°, respectively. The moment magnitude MW is about 5.9, with centroid depth of 15.2km. These show that the main shock was a thrust type. Most focal mechanism solutions of the aftershocks were shown as a thrust type, which are similar to the main shock. It is speculated that the possible seismogenic fault of this earthquake is the Huorgosi-Manas-Tugulu Fault.
    XU Chong, TIAN Ying-ying, SHEN Ling-ling, MA Si-yuan, XU Xi-wei, ZHOU Ben-gang, HUANG Xue-qiang, MA Jun-xue, CHEN Xi
    2018, 40(5):  1115-1128.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.011
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    In this study, a detailed database of landslides triggered by the 25 April 2015 Gorkha (Nepal)MW7.8 earthquake is constructed based on visual interpretation of pre- and post-earthquake high-resolution satellite images and field reconnaissance. Results show the earthquake triggered at least 47 200 landslides, which have a NWW direction spatial distribution, similar with the location and strike of the seismogenic fault. The landslides are of a total area about 110km2 and an oval distribution area about 35 700km2. On the basis of a scale relationship between landslide area (A)and volume (V), V=1.314 7×A1.208 5, the total volume of the coseismic landslides is estimated to be about 9.64×108m3. In the oval landslide distribution area, the landslide number density, area density, and volume density were calculated and the results are 1.32km-2, 0.31%, and 0.027m, respectively. This study provides a detailed and objective inventory of landslides triggered by the Gorkha earthquake, which provides very important and essential basic data for study of mechanics of coseismic landslides, spatial pattern, distribution law, and hazard assessment. In addition, the landslide database related to an individual earthquake also provides an important earthquake case in a subduction zone for studying landslides related to multiple earthquakes from a global perspective.
    CHEN Xiao-li, ZHANG Ling, WANG Ming-ming
    2018, 40(5):  1129-1139.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.012
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    On August 3, 2014, an MW6.5 earthquake occurred in Ludian County, Yunnan Province, which triggered significant landslides and caused serious ground damages and casualties. Compared with the existing events of earthquake-triggered landslides, the spatial distribution of co-seismic landslides during the Ludian earthquake showed a special pattern. The relationship between the co-seismic landslides and the epicenter or the known faults is not obvious, and the maximum landslide density doesn't appear in the area near the epicenter. Peak ground acceleration (PGA), which usually is used to judge the limit boundary of co-seismic landslide distribution, cannot explain this distribution pattern. Instead of correlating geological and topographic factors with the co-seismic landslide distribution pattern, this study focuses on analyzing the influence of seismic landslide susceptibility on the co-seismic distribution. Seismic landslide susceptibility comes from a calculation of critical acceleration values using a simplified Newmark block model analysis and represents slope stability under seismic loading. Both DEM (SRTM 90m)and geological map (1 ︰ 200000)are used as inputs to calculate critical acceleration values. Results show that the most susceptible slopes with the smallest critical accelerations are generally concentrated along the banks of rivers. The stable slopes, which have the larger critical accelerations and are comparably stable, are in the places adjacent to the epicenter. Comparison of the distribution of slope stability and the real landslides triggered by the 2014 MW6.1 Ludian earthquake shows a good spatial correlation, meaning seismic landslide susceptibility controls the co-seismic landslide distributions to a certain degree. Moreover, our study provides a plausible explanation on the special distribution pattern of Ludian earthquake triggered landslides. Also the paper discusses the advantages of using the seismic landslide susceptibility as a basic map, which will offer an additional tool that can be used to assist in post-disaster response activities as well as seismic landslides hazards zonation.
    WU Wei-ying, XU Chong
    2018, 40(5):  1140-1148.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.013
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    Large earthquakes in mountainous areas often induce landslides, which always lead to serious disasters. A detailed and accurate inventory of earthquake-triggered landslides is an important basis for scientific research on co-seismic landslides in the future. High quality landslide inventory should cover the whole earthquake area, spanning all scales of co-seismic landslides that can be detected, accurate landslide locations and boundaries, polygon-based description of the true landslide shape, and separate individual landslides from contiguous landslides group. Building the inventory of landslides triggered by earthquake based on the traditional ground survey will take a long time and a large amount of manpower and material resources, while the remote sensing image, by virtue of its comprehensive coverage and economy, can make up for the shortcomings of the former. In this study, a new inventory of landslides triggered by the 2014 Ludian MW6.2 earthquake is presented on the basis of visual interpretation of pre- and post-earthquake satellite images in very high resolution (~0.5m), and verified by selecting filed investigation. Results show the earthquake triggered at least 10559 landslides around the epicenter. Statistics reveals a total horizontal projection area of 14.975km2, an oval distribution area about 360km2 and an estimated total volume of 1.24×108m3. The landslide number density, landslide area percentage, and landslide volume density are 29.6km-2, 4.2%, 0.35m, respectively. Comparing with previous studies, the inventory of landslides triggered by earthquake in this study is much more detailed and accurate in spatial distribution and the boundaries of landslides are more exquisite, which is attributed to the image quality, resolution and coverage of remote sensing we used in this study and strict compliance with cataloging standards of co-seismic landslides inventory during interpretation. This study provides a detailed and complete inventory related to the 2014 Ludian earthquake, which is an important and essential data for subsequent landslide spatial distribution analyses and assessments. In addition, this study also reminds us that when we establish the inventory of landslides triggered by earthquake with satellite images, it is necessary to select better quality and high-resolution remote sensing images and strictly comply with the standard of co-seismic landslides inventory during interpretation, so as to establish a complete and detailed inventory of landslides triggered by earthquake that can be used to seismic geological disaster analysis and quantitative research.
    ZHANG Jin-yu, ZENG Jing, WANG Heng, SHI Xu-hua, YAO Wen-qian, XU Jing, XU Xin-yue
    2018, 40(5):  1149-1169.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.014
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    The bedrock scarps are believed to have recorded the continuous information on displacement accumulation and sequence of large earthquakes. The occurrence timing of large earthquakes is believed to be correlated positively with the exposure duration of bedrock fault surfaces. Accordingly, cosmogenic nuclides concentration determined for the bedrock footwall can offer their times, ages, and slip over long time. In general, multiple sites of fault scarps along one or even more faults are selected to carry out cosmogenic nuclide dating in an attempt to derive the temporal and spatial pattern of fault activity. This may contribute to explore whether earthquake occurrence exhibits any regularity and predict the timing and magnitude of strong earthquakes in the near future. Cosmogenic nuclide 36 Cl dating is widely applied to fault scarp of limestone, and the height of fault scarp can reach as high as 15~20m. It is strongly suggested to make sure the bedrock scarp is exhumed by large earthquake events instead of geomorphic processes, based on field observation, and data acquired by terrestrial LiDAR and ground penetration radar (GPR). In addition, it is better for the fault surface to be straight and fresh with striations indicating recent fault movement. A series of bedrock samples are collected from the footwall in parallel to the direction of fault movement both above and below the colluvium, and each of them is~15cm long,~10cm wide, and~3cm thick. The concentrations of both cosmogenic nuclide 36 Cl and REE-Y determined from these samples vary with the heights in parallel to fault scarps. Accordingly, we identify the times of past large earthquakes, model the profile of 36 Cl concentration to seek the most realistic one, and determine the ages and slip of each earthquake event with the errors. In general, the errors for the numbers, ages, and slips of past earthquake events are ±1-2, no more than ±0.5-1.0ka, and ±0.25m, respectively.
    QU Ming-zhe, GAO Feng, YANG Xue-shan, YANG Dong-xia
    2018, 40(5):  1170-1178.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2018.05.015
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    Many strong motion records show that under the strong seismic vibration of, the torsional disfigurement of building structures is a common and serious damage. At present, there are no special sensors for measuring seismic rotation in the world. Most of the experts obtain rotational components through observing deformation, theoretical analysis and calculation. The theory of elastic wave and source dynamics also prove the conclusion that the surface of the earth will rotate when an earthquake occurs. Based on a large number of investigations and experiments, a rotational acceleration sensor was developed for the observation of the rotational component of strong ground motions. This acceleration sensor is a double-pendulum passive servo large-damped seismic rotational acceleration sensor with the moving coil transducer. When an earthquake occurs, the seismic rotational acceleration acts on the bottom plate at the same time. The magnetic circuit system and the middle shaft fixedly connected to the bottom plate follow the bottom plate synchronous vibration, and the moving part composed of the mass ring, the swing frame and the moving ring produces relative corners to the central axis. The two working coils mounted on the two pendulums produce the same relative motion with respect to the magnetic gaps of the two magnetic circuits. Both working coils at this time generate an induced electromotive force by cutting magnetic lines of force in the respective magnetic gaps. The generated electromotive forces are respectively input to respective passive servo large damper dynamic ring transducer circuits and angular acceleration adjusting circuits, and the signals are simultaneously input to the synthesizing circuit after conditioning. Finally, the composite circuit outputs a voltage signal proportional to the seismic rotational acceleration to form a seismic rotational acceleration sensor. The paper presents the basic principles of the rotational acceleration sensor, including its mechanical structure diagram, circuit schematic diagram and mathematical models. The differential equation of motion and its circuit equation are derived to obtain the expressions of the main technical specifications, such as the damping ratio and sensitivity. The calculation shows that when the damping ratio is much larger than 1, the output voltage of the passive servo large damping dynamic coil transducer circuit is proportional to the ground rotation acceleration, and the frequency characteristic of bandpass is wider when the damping ratio is larger. Based on the calibration test, the dynamic range is greater than or equal to 100dB and the linearity error is less than 0.05%. The amplitude-frequency characteristics, the phase-frequency characteristics and their corresponding curves of the passive servo rotational acceleration sensor are acquired through the calculations. Based on the accurate measurement of the micro-vibration of the precision rotating vibration equipment, the desired result is obtained. The measured data are presented in the paper, which verify the correctness of the calculation result. The passive servo large damping rotational acceleration sensor has simple circuit design, convenient operation and high resolution, and can be widely applied to seismic acceleration measurement of earthquake or structure.