地震地质 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (6): 1350-1365.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2019.06.003

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇


孙稳, 何宏林, 魏占玉, 高伟, 孙浩越, 邹俊杰   

  1. 中国地震局地质研究所, 地球动力学国家重点实验室, 北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-23 修回日期:2018-12-06 出版日期:2019-12-20 发布日期:2020-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 何宏林,男,研究员,博士生导师,E-mail:honglinhe123@vip.sina.com
  • 作者简介:孙稳,男,1992年生,2015年于合肥工业大学获资源勘查工程专业学士学位,现为中国地震局地质研究所构造地质学专业在读博士研究生,主要从事活动构造与地貌学研究,电话:010-62009031,E-mail:sunw0219@ies.ac.cn。
  • 基金资助:


SUN Wen, HE Hong-lin, WEI Zhan-yu, GAO Wei, SUN Hao-yue, ZOU Jun-jie   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2018-05-23 Revised:2018-12-06 Online:2019-12-20 Published:2020-03-10

摘要: 与断层活动相关的构造地貌是多次强震活动与长期地表过程共同作用的结果,其形态特征包含着丰富的强震活动信息。但由于测量手段和数据精度的限制,如何从形态复杂的构造地貌中准确识别这些信息一直是活动构造研究的难点。近年来,结合运动重建模型(SfM,Structure from Motion)的小型无人机(sUAV,small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)低空航测技术为研究者提供了一种低成本、高灵活性、快速获取高精度3D地形数据(DEM)和正射影像(DOM)的方法。文中利用该方法获得了海原断裂唐家坡西田埂位错区域的高精度、高分辨率DEM数据,然后基于DEM数据进行了构造地貌解译和断层陡坎形貌分析。通过地貌单元划分并对其与断层的切割关系进行解译,识别出一系列走滑断裂的伴生构造,并讨论走滑断层发育过程中的破裂类型及其样式。基于对冲沟水平位错量、断层陡坎垂直位错量的统计和断层陡坎坡度拐点的分析,认为研究区地貌面形成以来经历了2次地表破裂型地震事件。其中,最新一次事件的水平和垂直位移量分别为(4.3±0.4)m和(0.95±0.14)m,该位移量也代表了1920年海原地震的同震位移量;较老一次事件的水平和垂直位移量分别为(4.3±0.95)m和(0.85±0.22)m。

关键词: 构造地貌, 精细结构, 海原断裂, sUAV(small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), 水平位错, 垂直位错, 坡折点

Abstract: Fault-related tectonic geomorphologic features are integrated expressions of multiple strong seismological events and long-term surface processes, including crucial information about strong earthquake behavior of a fault. It's of great significance to identify the strong seismic activity information from faulted landscapes, which include the date and sequence of the seismic activities, displacements, active fault features, for studying the seismic rupture process, predicting the future seismic recurrence behavior and evaluating the seismic hazard of the fault.
However, due to the restriction of measuring techniques and the subsequent poor quality of the acquired data, it has been difficult to accurately extract such information from complex tectonic landforms to study active faults for a long time. Recently, "small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(sUAV)" photogrammetric technique based on "Structure from Motion(SfM)" provides a cost-efficient and convenient access to high-resolution and high-accuracy "digital elevation models(DEMs)" of tectonic landforms.
This paper selects the Tangjiapo area at the Haiyuan Fault to conduct data collection, in which the structural and geomorphic features are well preserved. Using a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle(Inpire 2), we collect 1598 aerial photographs with a coverage area of 0.72km2. For calibrating the accuracy of the aerial data, we set 10 ground control points and use differential-GPS to obtain the spatial coordinates of these control points. We use model software Agisoft PhotoScan to process these digital pictures, obtaining high-resolution and high-accuracy DEM data with the geographic information, in which data resolution is 2.6cm/pix and the average density of point cloud is 89.3 point/m2. The data with these accuracy and resolution can fully show the real geomorphic features of the landform and meet the requirements for extracting specific structural geomorphic information on the surface.
Through the detailed interpretation of the tectonic landforms, we identify a series of structures associated with the strike-slip fault and divide the alluvial fan into four stages, named s1, s2, s3, and s4, respectively.Wherein, the s1 is the latest phase of the alluvial fan, which is in the extension direction of the Haiyuan Fault and there isn't any surface fracture, indicating that the s1 was formed after the M8.5 Haiyuan earthquake in 1920. The rupture zone on the s2 fan is composed of varied kinds of faulting geomorphologic landforms, such as a series of en echelon tension-shear fractures trending 270°~285°, fault scarps and seismic ridges caused by the left-lateral motion of the seismic fault. In addition, a number of field ridges on the s2 fan were faulted by the 1920 Haiyuan M8.5 earthquake, recording the co-seismic displacements of the latest earthquake event. Relatively speaking, the surface rupture structure of the s3 fan is simple, mainly manifested as linear fault scarp with a trend of 270°~285°, which may indicate that multiple earthquakes have connected the different secondary fractures. And a small part of s4 fan is distributed in the southwest of the study area without fault crossing.
Furthermore, we measured the horizontal displacements of river channels and vertical offsets of fault scarps. The faulted ridge on the s2 fan and faulted gully on the s3 fan provide good linear markers for obtaining the fault left-lateral dislocation. We used the graphical dislocation measurement software LaDiCaoz developed based on Matlab to restore the gully position before the earthquake by comparing the gully morphology on both sides of the fault, and then determined the horizontal offset of s2, which is(4.3±0.4)m and that of s3 is(8.6±0.6)m. In addition, based on the DEM data, we extracted the fault scarp densely along the fault strike, and obtained the vertical offset of s2, which is(4.3±0.4)m and that of s3 is(1.79±0.16)m.
Moreover, we detect slope breaks in the fault scarp morphology. For compound fault scarps generated by multiple surface rupture earthquakes, there are multiple inflection points on the slope of the topographic section, and each inflection point represents a surface rupture event. Therefore, the slope break point on the scarp becomes an important symbol of multiple rupture of the fault. The statistical result shows that the slope breaks number of s2 is 1 and that of s3 is 2. Based on the analysis of horizontal displacements of river channels and vertical offsets of fault scarps as well as its slope breaks, two surface rupturing events can be confirmed along the Tangjiapo area of the Haiyuan Fault. Among them, the horizontal and vertical displacements of the older event are(4.3±0.95)m and(0.85±0.22)m, respectively, while that of the latest event are(4.3±0.4)m and(0.95±0.14)m, which are the coseismic horizontal and vertical offsets of the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake.
These recognitions have improved our cognitive level of the fine structure of seismic surface rupture and ability to recognize paleoearthquake events. Therefore, the high-resolution topographic data obtained from the SfM photogrammetry method can be used for interpretation of fine structure and quantitative analysis of microgeomorphology. With the development of research on tectonic geomorphology and active tectonics toward refinement and quantification, this method will be of higher use value and practical significance.

Key words: tectonic landforms, fine structure, the Haiyuan Fault, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV), horizontal displacements, vertical offset, slope break