SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 600-613.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2021.03.008

• Research paper • Previous Articles     Next Articles


JIA Rui1,2), ZHANG Guo-hong1), XIE Chao-di2), SHAN Xin-jian1), ZHANG Ying-feng1), LI Cheng-long1), HUANG Zi-cheng1)   

  1. 1)State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China;
    2)Geophysics Department, School of Earth Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
  • Received:2020-07-06 Revised:2020-10-27 Online:2021-06-20 Published:2021-07-20


贾蕊1,2), 张国宏1),*, 解朝娣2), 单新建1), 张迎峰1), 李成龙1), 黄自成1)   

  1. 1)中国地震局地质研究所, 地震动力学重点实验室, 北京 100029;
    2)云南大学地球科学学院, 地球物理系, 昆明 650500
  • 通讯作者: *张国宏, 男, 1978年生, 研究员, 主要从事震源动力学破裂过程模拟研究, E-mail:。
  • 作者简介:贾蕊, 女, 1997年生, 2021年于云南大学获固体地球物理学专业硕士学位, 现为中国地震局地质研究所固体地球物理学专业联合培养硕士研究生, 研究方向为InSAR技术在地震及地壳形变领域的应用, 电话: 15076626719, E-mail:。
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFC1509204)、 国家自然科学基金(41631073)和中国地震局地质研究所基本科研业务专项(IGCEA2005)共同资助

Abstract: In the global scale, ten destructive earthquakes with magnitude larger than 7 happen on average each year. Yet the number of small earthquakes with limited or even no damage but recordable by seismographs(magnitude between 2.5 and 4.5)is over one million per year. In between, there are hundreds to thousands of earthquakes with moderate to strong magnitude(magnitude between 5.5 and 6.5)with notable destructiveness. The massive moderate to strong earthquakes are often less noticed or even overlooked, with only very few exceptions which caused human casualties and/or structure damages due to the very shallow focal depths. For medium earthquakes, the traditional seismology means can obtain the source mechanism solution of earthquake, but because of the inherent fuzziness of the source mechanism, it cannot distinguish the fault plane from the auxiliary nodal planes, because earthquakes of this magnitude usually do not produce surface rupture, and the result error is large, so it is not suitable for the study of medium and small earthquakes. It is of fundamental significance to further study the source fault of the moderate earthquakes, and more independent methods other than traditional seismology, such as satellite geodesy are needed. As one of the most applied satellite geodesy technique, interferometry of SAR(InSAR)satellite images are commonly used to obtain coseismic deformation related to earthquakes. InSAR has very high spatial sampling, though the temporal sampling is very low, which is several days to over a month depending on the satellite revisit span. The precision of coseismic deformation by InSAR can reach 2~3cm, which is good enough to obtain the surface deformation caused by a moderate earthquake. It is noted that InSAR coseismic measurements can detect 1-dimensional(1D)deformation along Line-of-Sight(LOS)direction. With multiple observing modes including descending and ascending, the InSAR deformation data is very useful for identifying surface ruptures, and for source fault plane discrimination. As a new geodetic observation technology, InSAR uses the elastic dislocation model to obtain source parameters, and the inversion results of fault parameters and slip distribution are more reliable. On September 24th, 2019, an MW6.0 earthquake hit New Mirpur, Pakistan. The nearest known fault to the epicenter is the Main Frontal Thrust on its south side. We used the Sentinel-1A SAR imagery(TOPS-model)to reconstruct the InSAR coseismic deformation fields generated by the 2019 MW6.0 Pakistan earthquake along the ascending and descending tracks. The ascending and descending deformation fields indicate that coseismic deformation is asymmetric by a trend of NW-SE in the south secondary fault of the Himalayan frontal thrust fault, with a maximum LOS displacement of~0.1m. The structures of ascending and descending deformation are highly consistent with each other, but the LOS displacement of southern side is obviously larger than the northern side. The continuous change of interference fringes between uplift and subsidence areas shows that there is no coherent phenomenon caused by excessively large deformation gradient or surface rupture, which indicates that the seismic fault rupture did not reach to the ground surface. Two initial fault models constrained by InSAR deformation, with a southwest-dipping and northeast-dipping fault, were utilized in the inversion. We finally determined the northeast-dipping fault as the seismogenic fault by joint inversion of ascending and descending observations, combined with tectonic setting. Our fault model suggests that an obvious slip concentrated area is located in the depth of 2~4km, with a peak slip of~0.64m and a mean rake angle of~125°. The north-dipping thrust motion with a small amount of strike-slip component dominated the faulting. The earthquake occurred in the low-dipping subduction zone between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The dip angle of the fault plane is relatively low. When the fault is ruptured, the upper wall thrust southwards and the north wall subducted northwards. Due to the compressional nappe structure, the front end of the upper wall was uplifted and the back end was stretched to become the subsidence area. Seismogenic fault is the south secondary fault of the Himalayan frontal thrust fault inferred from our coseismic fault model and rupture kinematic features. Active faults on the land have caused many large destructive earthquakes, resulting in surface faults and promoting the development of tectonic landforms. The detailed observation of coseismic surface rupture not only provides basic information for understanding the earthquake itself and estimating the earthquake recurrence period, but also helps to interpret the tectonic and geomorphic features in other areas. Since the MW6.0 earthquake in Pakistan in 2019, no studies have been reported yet on this earthquake using InSAR technology, so the study of this earthquake provides a rare opportunity to assess the seismic risk of active thrust faults and to study the seismicity of northern Pakistan.

Key words: the 2019 MW6.0 Pakistan earthquake, coseismic deformation, fault slip distribution, seismogenic structure, secondary fault of the Main Frontal Thrust

摘要: 2019年9月24日, 巴基斯坦北部新米尔普尔发生MW6.0地震。 文中利用欧空局升降轨Sentinel-1A SAR数据重建了此次地震的InSAR同震形变场。 结果表明, 同震形变呈NW-SE向非对称性地分布于喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂的次级断裂带南缘, 最大LOS向形变量为10cm, 升、 降轨观测的同震形变场结果一致, 但南盘的形变量明显大于北盘。 在反演过程中, 通过InSAR升降轨形变场约束出SW倾向和NE倾向2种不同的初始断层模型, 通过反演并结合该区域的地质构造背景, 最终发现NE倾向断层模型的拟合度远高于SW倾向的断层模型。 该断层模型的反演结果显示, 同震破裂集中于地下2~4km深处, 产生的最大滑动量约为0.64m, 平均滑动角约为125°, 矩震级为MW6.0, 断层的运动性质以N倾逆冲(倾角为15°)为主, 兼具少量右旋走滑运动。 从同震断层模型和破裂运动学特征推测, 此次地震的发震断层为喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂的次级断裂。

关键词: 巴基斯坦地震, 同震形变场, 断层滑动分布, 发震构造, 喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂, 次级断裂

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