SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (1): 256-278.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2022.01.016

• Special topic on the Qinghai Menyuan MS6.9 earthquake • Previous Articles    


LIANG Kuan1)(), HE Zhong-tai1),2),3),*(), JIANG Wen-liang1), LI Yong-sheng1), LIU Ze-min1)   

  1. 1) National Institute of Natural Hazards, Ministry of Emergency Management of China, Beijing 100085, China
    2) Hebei Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Disaster Prevention, Sanhe, Hebei 065201, China
    3) Key Laboratory of Crustal Dynamics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100085, China
  • Received:2022-01-25 Revised:2022-02-22 Online:2022-02-20 Published:2022-04-20
  • Contact: HE Zhong-tai


梁宽1)(), 何仲太1),2),3),*(), 姜文亮1), 李永生1), 刘泽民1)   

  1. 1)应急管理部国家自然灾害防治研究院, 北京 100085
    2)防灾科技学院, 河北省地震动力学重点实验室, 三河 065201
    3)中国地震局地壳动力学重点实验室, 北京 100085
  • 通讯作者: 何仲太
  • 作者简介:梁宽, 男, 1988年生, 2019年于中国地震局地质研究所获构造地质学专业博士学位, 助理研究员, 研究方向为活动构造与构造地貌, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:


At 1:45 on January 8, 2022, a MS6.9 earthquake occurred in Menyuan County, Haibei Prefecture, Qinghai Province. The epicenter(37.77°N, 101.26°E)is located in the western segment of the Lenglongling Fault of the Qilian-Haiyuan fault zone, with a focal depth of 10km. The earthquake is located in the northwest of the MS6.4 Menyuan earthquake on January 21, 2016. According to the survey results of China Earthquake Administration, the highest intensity of this earthquake is IX degree, and the long axis of the isoseismic line is NWW-striking. The earthquake caused serious damage to the Daliang Tunnel between Haomen Station and Junmachang Station, and the Lanxin high-speed railway was interrupted. After the earthquake, the distribution of the earthquake surface rupture zone was quickly determined by interpreting the GF-7 satellite post-earthquake images, and the field surface rupture investigation was carried out at the epicenter site in the first time. The field investigation mainly includes the identification of surface rupture zones, the investigation of rupture characteristics, the survey of fault geomorphology, the high-precision aerial photogrammetry of typical rupture points, the identification and measurement of coseismic dislocation, and the investigation of earthquake disasters. Aerial photogrammetry realizes real-time difference through UAV linked network RTK, and takes high-definition photos from multiple angles. Pix4D software is used to complete calculation and point cloud encryption, etc. DSM (Digital Surface Model) and DOM (Digital Orthophoto Map) are generated for surface rupture space reproduction and feature measurement and analysis. According to the interpretation of high-resolution remote sensing images by GF-7 satellite and field investigation, the surface rupture of MS6.9 Menyuan earthquake can be divided into NW-striking western segment of Lenglongling Fault and EW-striking eastern segment of Tuolaishan Fault. The two surface ruptures are 291° and 86.9°, respectively, and their lengths are not less than 26km and 3.5km respectively. We made detailed observation and measurement on the Jingyangling site, Daogou site, east Daogou site, Shixiamen site, the seven sites along the Liuhuanggou on the Lenglongling Fault, and the Yangchangzigou site on the Tuolaishan Fault. The surface rupture zone is mainly a complex coseismic surface deformation zone formed by the combination of multiple types of fractures, such as tensional fracture, tensional shear fracture, compression bulge and seismic depression, and characterized by sinistral strike-slip motion and partly by thrusting. Generally, the NW-striking ruptures exhibit left-lateral strike-slip characteristics, while NW-striking branch ruptures exhibit a small amount of right-lateral strike-slip characteristics. At Shixiamen site, four pasture fences were continuously offset left-laterally by 2.0~2.15m. At the Daliang Tunel site, the rut was offset left-laterally by 2.77m measured by UAV, which is the largest co-seismic left-lateral displacement of this earthquake. Based on high-resolution remote sensing image interpretation, field investigation, InSAR inversion of focal mechanism, fault rupture model and small earthquake precision location, it is determined that the earthquake occurred at the deep intersection of the Tuolaishan Fault and Lenglongling Fault, and the main seismogenic structure is the western segment of Lenglongling Fault(strike 112°, dip 88°). The Tuolaishan Fault on its west side ruptured simultaneously at the east end. According to the distribution characteristics of the surface ruptures and the field investigation of this earthquake, we believe that the Lenglongling Fault continues to extend westward after passing through the Liuhuanggou No. 1 site until the Jingyangling site, and the NWW-striking Lenglongling Fault has a “Y”-shaped contact relationship with the EW-striking Tuolaishan Fault. The 1986 MS6.4 earthquake occurred at the northwestern end of the Lenglongling North Fault, which protrudes in an arc toward NE, and the 2016 MS6.4 earthquake occurred at the southeastern end of the fault. Affected by the left-lateral strike-slip movement of the Lenglongling Fault, the small block bounded by the Lenglongling Fault and the Lenglongling North Fault also moves in the direction of SEE relative to the northern block. Therefore, the 1986 MS6.4 earthquake showed tensile properties, and the 2016 MS6.4 earthquake showed compression properties. The seismogenic structure of the Menyuan MS6.9 earthquake is the Lenglongling Fault, so the earthquake is mainly characterized by left-lateral strike-slip. The MS6.4 earthquake in 1986, MS6.4 earthquake in 2016 and MS6.9 earthquake in 2022all occurred in the western section of Lenglongling Fault. Three strong earthquakes of M>6 occurred in a short period of time, indicating that this area is still an accumulation area of stress and deformation, and has the potential risk of large earthquakes.
Due to the limitation of the data range of the Gaofen-7 satellite image and the inconvenience of traffic caused by the icing of the river, the location of the easternmost end point of the rupture and the exact length of the rupture have not been determined in this field investigation. We hope that follow-up studies will be carried out to confirm the rupture length when weather conditions are appropriate.

Key words: January 8,2022 Menyuan MS6.9 earthquake, surface rupture zone, seismogenic structure, Lenglongling Fault, Tuolaishan Fault


2022年1月8日1时45分, 青海省海北藏族自治州门源县发生 MS6.9 地震, 震中(37.77°N, 101.26°E)位于祁连-海原断裂带冷龙岭断裂的西段, 震源深度为10km。地震发生后, 通过解译高分7号卫星的震后影像, 快速确定了同震地表破裂带的主体破裂区位置, 并第一时间进入震中现场开展野外地表破裂调查工作, 获取同震地表破裂带精确分布位置、 破裂长度、 破裂特征、 同震位错量等关键信息。根据震后遥感影像解译和现场调查结果可知, 此次门源 MS6.9 地震的地表破裂带由位于NWW向冷龙岭断裂西段和近EW向托莱山断裂东端的2段破裂带组成, 走向分别为291°和86.9°, 延伸长度分别约为26km和3.5km。地表破裂主要是由张裂隙、 张剪裂隙、 挤压鼓包和震陷等多类型破裂呈雁列状组合而成, 总体以左旋走滑运动为主, 局部兼有逆冲性质, 最大同震左旋位错为2.77m。综合高分辨率遥感影像解译、 现场调查、 InSAR反演的震源机制和断层破裂模型、 余震精定位等结果, 确定门源 MS6.9 地震发生于托莱山断裂与冷龙岭断裂在深部的交会位置, 主要发震构造是冷龙岭断裂的西段(走向为112°, 倾角为88°), 其西侧的托莱山断裂东端同时发生破裂。1986年 MS6.4 地震、 2016年 MS6.4 地震以及2022年 MS6.9 地震皆发生于冷龙岭断裂的西段, 短时间内发生的3次6级以上强震, 说明该地区仍为应力和形变积累区域, 仍具有发生特大地震的潜在风险。

关键词: 2022年1月8日青海门源MS6.9地震, 地表破裂带, 发震构造, 冷龙岭断裂, 托莱山断裂

CLC Number: