地震地质 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (2): 455-471.DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4967.2020.02.013

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张波1,2), 何文贵2),*, 刘炳旭2), 高效东2), 庞炜3), 王爱国2), 袁道阳4)   

  1. 1)中国地震局地质研究所, 北京 100029;
    2)甘肃兰州地球物理国家野外科学观测研究站, 兰州 730000;
    3)中国地震局第二监测中心, 西安 710054;
    4)兰州大学地质科学与矿产资源学院, 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-17 出版日期:2020-04-20 发布日期:2020-07-13
  • 通讯作者: * 何文贵, 男, 1963年生, 正研级高级工程师, E-mail: hewengui321@163.com。
  • 作者简介:张波, 男, 1986年生, 2012年于中国地震局兰州地震研究所获构造地质学硕士学位, 副研究员, 主要研究方向为新生代构造与活动构造, 电话: 13919015394, E-mail: kjwxn999@163.com。
  • 基金资助:


ZHANG Bo1,2), HE Wen-gui2), LIU Bing-xu2), GAO Xiao-dong2), PANG Wei3), WANG Ai-guo2), YUAN Dao-yang2,4)   

  1. 1)Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China;
    2)Lanzhou National Observatory of Geophysics, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3)The Second Monitoring and Application Center, China Earthquake Administration, Xi'an 710054, China;
    4)School of Earth Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2019-10-17 Online:2020-04-20 Published:2020-07-13

摘要: 通常认为甘肃北山是构造稳定区, 不发育活动断裂, 近年来新发现的俄博庙活动断裂挑战了这一传统认识, 深入研究该断裂的新活动特征和活动速率, 对于重新认识北山地区的新构造活动以及青藏高原和阿拉善块体的相互作用等问题具有重要意义。 文中基于卫星影像解译、 探槽开挖、 差分GPS和无人机摄影测量、 光释光测年等成熟的活动构造研究方法, 定量研究了俄博庙断裂的新活动特征, 得到以下认识: 首先, 文中完善了俄博庙断裂的几何展布, 将断裂长度由约20km延长至45km, 根据破裂长度与震级的经验关系推断俄博庙断裂具有发生7级地震的能力; 其次, 查明了断层陡坎的形态和成因, 发现正向陡坎和反向陡坎交替发育, 反向陡坎的高度为(0.22±0.02)~(1.32±0.1)m, 正向陡坎的高度为(0.33±0.1)~(0.64±0.1)m, 反向陡坎受由南向北低角度逆冲的断层控制, 断层倾角为23°~86°, 正向陡坎受倾向S的高角度正断层控制, 断层倾角为60°~81°; 另外, 断层的左旋走滑比倾滑更显著, 西段19条冲沟的左旋位移为(3.8±0.5)~(105±25)m, 根据其中最典型的一条冲沟的阶地陡坎的左旋位移量(16.7±0.5)m和上阶地年龄(11.2±1.5)ka, 得到俄博庙断裂晚更新世末以来的左旋滑动速率为(1.52±0.25)mm/a。 晚新生代以来, 在青藏高原NE向扩展的构造背景下, 俄博庙断裂的新活动特征可能响应了青藏高原与阿拉善块体之间的相对剪切分量。

关键词: 俄博庙断裂, 甘肃北山, 左旋走滑, 金塔盆地, 青藏高原, 阿拉善块体

Abstract: The Ebomiao Fault is a newly discovered active fault near the block boundary between the Tibetan plateau and the Alashan Block. This fault locates in the southern margin of the Beishan Mountain, which is generally considered to be a tectonically inactive zone, and active fault and earthquake are never expected to emerge, so the discovery of this active fault challenges the traditional thoughts. As a result, studying the new activity of this fault would shed new light on the neotectonic evolution of the Beishan Mountain and tectonic interaction effects between the Tibetan plateau and the Alashan Block. Based on some mature and traditional research methods of active tectonics such as satellite image interpretation, trenches excavation, differential GPS measurement, Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle Photogrammetry(UAVP), and Optical Stimulated Luminescence(OSL)dating, we quantitatively study the new activity features of the Ebomiao Fault.
    Through this study, we complete the fault geometry of the Ebomiao Fault and extend the fault eastward by 25km on the basis of the 20km-fault trace identified previously, the total length of the fault is extened to 45km, which is capable of generating magnitude 7 earthquake calculated from the empirical relationships between earthquake magnitude and fault length. The Ebomiao Fault is manifested as several segments of linear scarps on the land surface, the scarps are characterized by poor continuity because of seasonal flood erosion. Linear scarps are either north- or south-facing scarps that emerge intermittently. Fourteen differential GPS profiles show that the height of the north-facing scarps ranges from (0.22±0.02)m to (1.32±0.1)m, and seven differential GPS profiles show the height of south-facing scarps ranging from (0.33±0.1)m to (0.64±0.1)m. To clarify the causes of the linear scarps with opposite-facing directions, we dug seven trenches across these scarps, the trench profiles show that the south-dipping reverse faults dominate the north-facing scarps, the dipping angles range from 23° to 86°. However, the south-facing scarps are controlled by south-dipping normal faults with dipping angles spanning from 60° to 81°.
    The Ebomiao Fault is dominated by left-lateral strike-slip activity, with a small amount of vertical-slip component. From the submeter-resolution digital elevation models(DEM)constructed by UAVP, the measured left-lateral displacement of 19 gullies in the western segment of the Ebomiao Fault are(3.8±0.5)~(105±25)m, while the height of the north-facing scarps on this segment are(0.22±0.02)~(1.32±0.10)m(L3-L7), the left-lateral displacement is much larger than the scarp height. In this segment, there are three gullies preserving typical left-lateral offsets, one gully among them preserves two levels of alluvial terraces, the terrace riser between the upper terrace and the lower terrace is clear and shows horizontal offset. Based on high-resolution DEM interpretation and displacement restoration by LaDiCaoz software, the left-lateral displacement of the terrace riser is measured to be(16.7±0.5)m. The formation time of the terrace riser is approximated by the OSL age of the upper terrace, which is (11.2±1.5)ka BP at (0.68±0.03)m beneath the surface, and(11.4±0.6)ka at (0.89±0.03)m beneath the surface, the OSL age (11.2±1.5)ka BP at (0.68±0.03)m beneath the surface is more close to the formation time of the upper terrace because of a nearer distance to sediment contact between alluvial fan and eolian sand silt. Taking the (16.7±0.5)m left-lateral displacement of the terrace riser and the upper terrace age (11.2±1.5)ka, we calculate a left-lateral strike-slip rate of(1.52±0.25)mm/a for the Ebomiao Fault. The main source for the slip rate error is that the terrace risers on both walls of the fault are not definitely corresponded. The north wall of the fault is covered by eolian sand, we can only presume the location of terrace riser by geomorphic analysis. In addition, the samples used to calculate slip rate before were collected from the aeolian sand deposits on the north side of the fault, they are not sediments of the fan terraces, so they could not accurately define the formation age of the upper terrace. This study dates the upper terrace directly on the south wall of the fault.
    Since the late Cenozoic, the new activity of the Ebomiao Fault may have responded to the shear component of the relative movement between the Tibetan plateau and the Alashan Block under the macroscopic geological background of the northeastern-expanding of the Tibetan plateau. The north-facing fault scarps are dominated by south-dipping low-angle reverse faults, the emergence of this kind of faults(faults overthrusting from the Jinta Basin to the Beishan Mountain)suggests the far-field effect of block convergence between Tibetan plateau and Alashan Block, which results in the relative compression and crustal shortening. As for whether the Ebomiao Fault and Qilianshan thrust system are connected in the deep, more work is needed.

Key words: Ebomiao Fault, Gansu Beishan, left-lateral strike-slip, Jinta Basin, Tibetan plateau, Alashan Block