• 研究论文 •

### 日喀则弧前盆地的埋藏和剥蚀历史——来自低温热年代学的约束

1. 1. 中国地震局地质研究所, 地震动力学国家重点实验室, 北京 100029;
2. 中国地质大学(北京), 生物地质与环境地质国家重点实验室, 北京 100083
• 收稿日期:2018-12-27 修回日期:2019-01-28 出版日期:2019-04-20 发布日期:2019-05-21
• 作者简介:葛玉魁,男,1986年生,2016年于中国地质大学(北京)获矿产普查与勘探专业博士学位,现为中国地震局地质研究所博士后,主要研究方向为低温热年代学与沉积盆地分析,电话:010-62009041,E-mail:yukuige@126.com。
• 基金资助:
国家重点研发计划项目（2016YFC0600310）、国家自然科学基金（41225010，41502188，41702223）、中国地震局地质研究所地震动力学重点实验室项目（LED2016A02）、中国地震局川滇国家地震监测预报实验场课题（2017CESE0102）和中国科学院战略性先导科技专项（XDAXDA20070300）共同资助

### BURIAL AND EXHUMATION OF THE XIGAZE FORE-ARC BASIN FROM LOW TEMPERATURE THERMOCHRONOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China;
2. State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, School of Earth Sciences and Resources, Research Center for Tibetan Plateau Geology, China University of Geosciences(Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
• Received:2018-12-27 Revised:2019-01-28 Online:2019-04-20 Published:2019-05-21

Abstract: The Xigaze fore-arc basin is adjacent to the Indian plate and Eurasia collision zone. Understanding the erosion history of the Xigaze fore-arc basin is significant for realizing the impact of the orogenic belt due to the collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The different uplift patterns of the plateau will form different denudation characteristics. If all part of Tibet Plateau uplifted at the same time, the erosion rate of exterior Tibet Plateau will be much larger than the interior plateau due to the active tectonic action, relief, and outflow system at the edge. If the plateau grows from the inside to the outside or from the north to south sides, the strong erosion zone will gradually change along the tectonic active zone that expands to the outward, north, or south sides. Therefore, the different uplift patterns are likely to retain corresponding evidence on the erosion information. The Xigaze fore-arc basin is adjacent to the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone. Its burial, deformation and erosion history during or after the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasia are very important to understand the influence of plateau uplift on erosion.
In this study, we use the apatite fission track(AFT)ages and zircon and apatite(U-Th)/He(ZHe and AHe)ages, combined with the published low-temperature thermochronological age to explore the thermal evolution process of the Xigaze fore-arc basin. The samples' elevation is in the range of 3 860~4 070m. All zircon and apatite samples were dated by the external detector method, using low~U mica sheets as external detectors for fission track ages. A Zeiss Axioskop microscope(1 250×, dry)and FT Stage 4.04 system at the Fission Track Laboratory of the University of Waikato in New Zealand were used to carry out fission track counting. We crushed our samples finely, and then used standard heavy liquid and magnetic separation with additional handpicking methods to select zircon and apatite grains.
The new results show that the ZHe age of the sample M7-01 is(27.06±2.55)Ma(Table 2), and the corresponding AHe age is(9.25±0.76)Ma. The ZHe and AHe ages are significantly smaller than the stratigraphic age, indicating suffering from annealing reset(Table 3). The fission apatite fission track ages are between(74.1±7.8)Ma and(18.7±2.9)Ma, which are less than the corresponding stratigraphic age. The maximum AFT age is(74.1±7.8)Ma, and the minimum AFT age is(18.7±2.9)Ma. There is a significant north~south difference in the apatite fission track ages of the Xigaze fore-arc basin. The apatite fission track ages of the south part are 74~44Ma, the corresponding exhumation rate is 0.03~0.1km/Ma, and the denudation is less than 2km; the apatite fission track ages of the north part range from 27 to 15Ma and the ablation rate is 0.09~0.29km/Ma, but it lacks the exhumation information of the early Cenozoic. The apatite(U-Th)/He age indicates that the north~south Xigaze fore-arc basin has a consistent exhumation history after 15Ma.
The results of low temperature thermochronology show that exhumation histories are different between the northern and southern Xigaze fore-arc basin. From 70 to 60Ma, the southern Xigaze fore-arc basin has been maintained in the depth of 0~6km in the near surface, and has not been eroded or buried beyond this depth. The denudation is less than the north. The low-temperature thermochronological data of the northern part only record the exhumation history after 30Ma because of the young low-temperature thermochronological data. During early Early Miocene, the rapid erosion in the northern part of Xigaze fore-arc basin may be related to the river incision of the paleo-Yarlungzangbo River. The impact of Great Count Thrust on regional erosion is limited. The AHe data shows that the exhumation history of the north-south Xigaze fore-arc basin are consistent after 15Ma. In addition, the low-temperature thermochronological data of the northern Xigaze fore-arc basin constrains geographic range of the Kailas conglomerate during the late Oligocene~Miocene along the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone. The Kailas Basin only develops in the narrow, elongated zone between the fore-arc basin and the Gangdese orogenic belt.
The southern part of the Xigaze fore-arc basin has been uplifted from the sea level to the plateau at an altitude of 4.2km, despite the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian continent and the late fault activity, but the plateau has been slowly denuded since the early Cenozoic. The rise did not directly contribute to the accelerated erosion in the area, which is inconsistent with the assumption that rapid erosion means that the orogenic belt begins to rise.